Evidence That the Bible is Scripture


The paper on the Authority of God's word showed how it is an authority in our lives. But what evidence do we have that it is the Bible that is scripture? For the Old Testament we have secondarily the witness of the Jews and the early church, and primarily the witness of the Old Testament, Jesus, and the apostles and writers of the New Testament. For the New Testament we have the witness of the New Testament and the early church. Now one could argue that a "witness" cannot prove itself. However, the point of this is that the Bible is one witness, and you have to through accept its witness or reject it. Part 1 discusses the 39 books of the Old Testament, Part 2 discusses the apocrypha, Part 3, discusses the 27 books of the New Testament, and Part 4 discusses other books.

 

1 (OT) - 39 Books of the Old Testament

 

1a. Books of the Old Testament Confirmed Each Other

 

Old Testament writers often mentioned each other.

Five books of the Law: Josh 1:7;8:31;23:6;1 Ki 2:3; 2 Ki 14:6;17:37;18:6; 1 Chr 16:40; 2 Chr 17:9;23:18; 30:5,16,18; 31:3; 35:26; Ezra 3:2,4; 6:18; 7:6; Dan 9:11,13; Hos 8:12

Ezra: Neh 8:1; 12:32

Nehemiah: Ezra 2:2

Isaiah: 2 Kings 19:2; 2 Chr 32:20

Jeremiah: Daniel 9:2; 2 Chr 36:22

Jonah: 2 Kings 14:25

Micah: Jeremiah 26:18

Haggai: Ezra 5:1;6:14

Zechariah: Nehemiah 12:1,4,16, Ezra 5:1; 6:14

The point of this is that the Old Testament books fit together, as interlocking pieces of a puzzle.

 

1b. Jesus confirmed the Old Testament

 

Jesus defended himself against Satan by quoting scripture as God's direct word, "It is written..." Matt 4:4,7,10, Luke 4:4,8,12. Jesus stated that scripture cannot be broken in John 10:35, and scripture was "the commands of God" in Mark 4:8-9. His entire life was spent quoting, living, and fulfilling scripture as all the gospels show.

 

Jesus rebuked the Sadducees, who only accepted the Torah (Law) as the Word of God. Matt 22:29 says, Jesus replied, "You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God." Jesus said the following people wrote their books:

Moses in Mark 10:3,5; Luke 20:37

David in Matt 22:43-5; Mark 12:36-7; Luke 20:42-4

Isaiah in Matthew 15:7

Daniel in Matthew 24:15

 

The Jews in Palestine had the same Old Testament as Protestants have today. They divided scripture into three categories: the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. Jesus said "Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms" in Lk 24:27,44. (Psalms is the earlier name for Writings.) He references the categories in Matt 23:35 and Lk11:51.

 

1c. The New Testament Confirmed the Old Testament

 

"What advantage, then, is there in being a Jew, or what value is there in circumcision? Much in every way! First of all, they have been entrusted with the very words of God." Romans 3:1-2 (NIV)

 

The New Testament has many quotes and references from the Old Testament.



 

O.T. Book

Author

Dates B.C.

Quotes and References

Genesis

Moses

~1407 B.C.

Mt 19:4-5; Mk 9:16; 10:6,8; Acts 3:25; 7:3,7; Rom 4:17,18; 9:7,9,12; 1 Cor 6:16; 15:45; 2 Cor 4:6; Gal 3:6,8,16; 4:30; Eph 5:31; Heb 4:4; 6:14; Jms 3:23

Exodus

Moses

~1407 B.C.

Mt 5:21,38; 15:4; 19:19; 22:32; Mk 7:10; 10:19; 12:26; Lk 2:23; 18:20; ~Jn 6:31; 19:36; Acts 7:28,32,34,40; 23:5; Rom 9:15,17; 13:9; 1 Cor10:7; 2 Cor8:15; Heb8:5;9:20; 12:20; Jms2:11 (2 times)

Leviticus

Moses

~1407 B.C.

Mt 5:38,43; 15:4; 19:19; 22:39; Mk 7:10; 12:31; Lk 2:24; 10:27; Rom 10:5; 13:9; Gal 3:12; 5:14; Jms 2:8; 1 Pet 1:16

Numbers

Moses

~1407 B.C.

2 Tm 2:19 (LXX) ~Jn 19:36

Deuteronomy

Moses (mostly)

~1407 B.C.

Mt 4:4,7,10; 5:38; 6:13; 15:4; 18:16; 19:19; 22:37; Mk 7:10; 10:19; 12:30; Lk 4:4,8,12; 10:27; 18:20; Acts 3:23; 7:37; Rom 10:6-7,8,19; 11;8; 12:19; 13:9; 15:10; 1 Cor 9:9; Gal 3:10,14; Eph 6:3; Heb 1:6; 10:30 (2 times); 12:21,29; 13:5; Jms 2:11 (2 times)

Joshua

Joshua

~1377 B.C.

~Heb11; Jms 2:25

Judges

anon. Samuel?

1377-1004 B.C.

~Heb 11:32

Ruth

anon. Samuel?

~1011 B.C.

~Mt 1:5; ~Lk 3:32

1,2 Samuel

anon. Samuel?

1050-1004 B.C.

Rom 15:9; 2 Cor 6:18; Heb 1:5

1,2 Kings

anonymous

~950-550 B.C.

Rom 11:3,4

1,2 Chron.

anon. Ezra?

~950-550 B.C.

Heb 1:5

 

part written

340 B.C.

 

Ezra

Ezra

450-430 B.C.

Neh 8:1; 12:32

Nehemiah

Nehemiah

445-430 B.C.

~Ezra 2:2; ~Jn 6:31

Esther

anonymous

~470-424 B.C.

-

Job

anonymous

perhaps 2100

Rom 11:35; 1 Cor 3:19

Psalms

David & others

~1050 B.C.

Mt 4:6; 8:2; 13:35; 21:9,16,42; 22:44; 23:39; 27:46; Mk 11:9; 12:11,36; 15:34; Lk 4:11; 13:35; 19:38; 20:17,43; Jn 2:17; 6:31,45; 10:34; 12:13; 13:18; 15:25; 19:24,36; Acts 1:20 (2 times); 2:28,35; 4:11,26; 13:33,35; Rom 2:6; 3:12,13 (2 times),14,18; 4:8; 10:18; 11:10; 15:3,9,11; 1 Cor 3:20; 10:26; 15:27; 2 Cor 4:13; 9:9; Eph 4:8,26; Heb 1:5,7,9,12,13; 2:8,12; 3:11,15; 4:3,7; 5:5,6; 7:17,21; 10:7,30; 13:6; 1 Pet 2:7; 3:12; Rev 2:27; 19:15

 

Ps 137

After 587 B.C.

 

Proverbs

Solomon, Agur,

~971-931 B.C.

Rom 2:6; 12:20; Heb 12:6,13; Jms 4:6; 1 Pet 4:18; 5:5; 2 Pet 2:22

 

Lemuel, others

 

 

 

25:1 copied

729-686 B.C.

 

Ecclesiastes

Solomon

After 967 B.C.

- (Rom 3:12 similar concept)

S. of Songs

anonymous

After 967 B.C.

-

Isaiah

Isaiah

696-622 B.C.

Mt 3:3; 4:16; 8:17; 12:21; 13:14-15; 21:13; 24:29; Mk 1:3; 4:12; 7:6,7; 9:48; 11:17; 13:25; Lk 3:4-6; 4:19; 8:10; 19:46; 22:37; Jn 1:23; 12:40; Acts 7:50; 8:33; 13:34,47; 28:27; Rom 2:24; 3;17; 9:20,28,29,33; 15:12,21; 10:15,16,20, 21; 11:8; 14:11; 1 Cor 2:9,16; 14:21; 15:32,54; 2 Cor 6:2,17; Gal 4:27; Heb 2:13 (2 times); 1 Pet 1:25; 2:6,8,22; 3:14

Jeremiah

Jeremiah

627/6-587 B.C.

Mt2:18;21:14;Mk11:17;Lk19:46;23:30;2Cr10:17;Heb9:12;10:16,17

 

Jer 52:31-34

~561 B.C.

 

Lamentations

Likely Jeremiah

586-583 B.C.

-

Ezekiel

Ezekiel

7/593-571 B.C.

Rom 2:24; 2 Cor 6:17

Daniel

Daniel

606-536 B.C.

Mt 24:15; Mk 13:14; Rev 4:14

Hosea

Hosea

~790-710 B.C.

Mt 2:15; 9:13; 12:7; Lk 23:30; Rom 9:25,26; 1 Cor 15:55

Joel

Joel

900;587;400?

Acts 2:21; Rom 10:13

Amos

Amos                

760 (e'quake)

Acts 7:43; 15:16-18

Obadiah

Obadiah

844;723;585?

-

Jonah

Jonah

~763

2 Ki 14:25; references: Mt 12:39-41; Lk 11:29-32

Micah

Micah

before 722 B.C.

Mt 2:6; 10:36; 10:35-36

Nahum

Nahum

before 612 B.C.

-

Habbakuk

Habbakuk

~697-598 B.C.

Ac 13:41; Rom 1:17; Gal 3:11; Heb 10:38

Zephaniah

Zephaniah

640-609 B.C.

-

Haggai

Haggai

520-515 B.C.

Ezra 5:1; Heb 12:26

Zechariah

Zechariah

520-515 B.C.

Mt 21:5; 26:31; Mk 14:27; Jn 12:15; 19:37

Malachi

Malachi

538; 450-430

Mt 11:10; Mk 1:2; Lk 7:27; Rom 9:13


1d. Jewish Writers Who quoted the Old Testament

Ben Sira, in 2nd century B.C.        missing Ezekiel

Philo (De Vita Contemplativa 25)  3 sections

Jewish writer Josephus <100 A.D. Contra Apion 1.8.

Jewish Council at Jamnia 90 A.D. no Apocrypha

 


1e. Early Church Acceptance of the Old Testament

Cr         1 Clement (of Rome) (16 pgs)           97/98 A.D.

Ba        Epistle of Barnabas (13 pgs)              c.100 A.D.

Ig          Ignatius (21 pgs)                          c.110-117 A.D.

Pa        Papias disciple of John (3 pgs)      110-113 A.D.

Di         Didache (Teach. of 12 Disc.)(6 pgs) < 125 A.D.

Dg        (anonymous) to Diognetus (6 pgs)    c.130 A.D.

Po        Polycarp, disciple of John (4 pgs)      c.150 A.D.

JM        Justin Martyr (119 pgs)                 138-165 A.D.

He        Shepherd of Hermas (47 pgs)               160 A.D.

Th         Theophilus [Antioch] (33 pgs)168-181/188 A.D.

Me        Melito of Sardis  (11 pgs)               170-177 A.D.

Ae        Athenagoras (34 pgs)                         c.177 A.D.

Ir          Irenaeus (264 pgs)                         182-188 A.D.

Te         Tertullian [Rome]  (854 pgs)          200-220 A.D.

MF       Octavius of Minucius Felix                     210 A.D.

CA        Clement of Alexan. (424 pgs) 193-217/220 A.D.

Hi         Hippolytus, (233 pgs)                 225-235/6 A.D.

Or         Origen (622 pgs)                            230-254 A.D.

Nv         Novatian (39 pgs)                          250-257 A.D.

an         Anonymous against Novatian(7 pgs) c.255 A.D.

And Treatise on Rebaptism (11 pgs)

Cp        Cyprian and friends (270 pgs)         248-258 A.D.

Not shown are Bardesan (154-230) [ref. to Gen] or Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.). [Neh,Dan by name, allude Ex]

W = Books or quotes mentioned by name or by writer

G = Mentioned as words of God + quoted

B = Mentioned as scripture or quoted + "it is written"

Q = quote of 1 or more verses. 1/2  = quote of 1/2 a verse

A = Allusion. - = no reference    X = excluded


Writer

Cr

Ba

Ig

Pa

Di

Dg

Po

JM

He

Th

Me

Ae

Ir

Te

CA

Hi

Or

Nv

an

Cp

Old T.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

Gen

B

G

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

W

A

B

G

W

W

W

W

W

W

Ex

G

W

-

-

Q

-

-

W

-

G

W

-

W

W

Q

W

W

W

Q

W

Lev

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

1/2

W

W

-

W

-

-

W

Num

Q

-

A

-

-

-

-

W

A

-

W

-

W

W

B

W

W

-

W

W

Dt

Q

W

A

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Josh

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

W

W

W

Q

B

-

-

W

Jdg

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

A

W

W

-

W

-

W

W

Ruth

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,2Sm

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

-

-

W

-

B

A

W

W

W

-

Q

W

1,2Ki

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

Q

W

W

Q

W

-

W

W

1,2Ch

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

W

W

1/2

-

W

Ezr

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

Neh

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

Esth

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

Job

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

Q

W

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

W

Ps

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Prov

G

-

G

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

W

B

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

W

Ecc

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

W

-

-

W

W

W

W

-

-

W

SofS

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

A

W

-

W

W

-

-

W

Isa

Q

G

Q

-

-

-

Q

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Jer

-

G

-

-

-

-

-

W

A

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

Lam

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

Q

W

-

W

-

-
Q

Ezek

G

G

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

A

W

W

Daniel

A

B

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

12 min-or pro.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

Hosea

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

W

W

W

Q

W

W

-

W

Joel

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

B

-

W

-

-

B

W

W

-

W

W

Q

W

Amos

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

B

W

W

W

Q

1/2

-

W

Obad

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Jonah

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

Micah

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

Q

W

W

W

B

-

Q

W

Nahum

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

Q

-

-

-

-

W

Hab

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

W

Zeph

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

A

W

Haggai

-

B

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

B

-

W

-

-

W

Zech

-

G

-

-

-

-

-

W

A

W

-

-

W

W

W

1/2

W

W

W

W

Malachi

1/2

-

-

-

-

A

-

W

-

W

-

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

-

W

Writer

Cr

Ba

Ig

Pa

Di

Dg

Po

JM

He

Th

Me

Ae

Ir

Te

CA

Hi

Or

Nv

an

Cp

 

Time

97/98 A.D.

150 A.D.

168 A.D.

200

225 A.D.              258 A.D.

 

Pages

151 pages

135 pgs

264

854

424

225

622

57 pgs

270

 

 


1q Qualification

 

The Old Testament itself mentions some books and records we do not have any copies of today.

Acts of Solomon          1 Kings 11-41

Chronicles of Kings      1 Ki 14:19, 29, 2 Ki 19:9-12, 11

Kings of Judah/Israel   2 Chr 16:11,25:26;28:26,32;27:2; 35:27;36:8

Kings of Israel              2 Chr 20:34;33:18;24:7;1Ki14:19

Jasher (Upright one)    Joshua 10:13; 2 Samuel 1:18

Wars of the Lord          Numbers 21:14

These are not scripture, but simply other reliable records.

 

Theophilus of Antioch mentions Habakkuk in Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.35 p.108.

 

Melito/Meleto of Sardis lists the books in the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 4 books of Kings, 2 books of Chronicles, Psalms of David, Proverbs of Solomon (also called the Book of Wisdom), Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job, the books of the Prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, the twelve in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. (He did not mention Lamentations, but he might have considered it part of Jeremiah.) Apart from Lamentations and lumping the twelve together, Melito mentioned every single book except Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. Fragment 4 p.759.

Melito of Sardis mentions Micah and Habakkuk p.761

 

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) mentions "the Old Testament prophets, or any of the New", and then mentions Agabus, Judas, Silas, the daughters of Philip, or the woman Ammia in Philadelphia. from book 3 ch.9 p.337

 

Tertullian mentions Hosea in Tertullian's Five Books Against Marcion book 1 ch.20 p.286

Tertullian mentions Ezekiel and quotes Ezekiel 28:11-16 (Septuagint) in Tertullian's Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.10 p.305-306

Tertullian mentions the Old and New Testaments in Tertullian's Five Books Against Marcion (207/208 A.D.) book 4 ch.6 p.351. and book 4 ch.22 p.384.

 

The Octavius of Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) does not mention any books of the Bible or apocrypha.

 

 

Origen mentions Genesis and Deuteronomy as by Moses in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.29 p.555

Origen mentions the Pentateuch. Origen's Commentary on John (225-231 A.D.) book 5 ch.4 p.347

Origen mentions the 12 minor prophets p.615

Origen mentions the twelve (prophets of the Old Testament) and then quotes Hosea 10:12. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.20 vol.9 p.337

Origen mentions Malachi by name in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.62 p.602. Origen quotes from part of Malachi 3:2 as "holy scripture" in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.15 p.549

Origen refers to Ezekiel by name in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.15 p.549 and p.615

Origen refers to the "Old Testament" in Against Celsus book 7 ch.24 p.620

 

Hippolytus mentions Job in Expository Treatise Against the Jews ch.8 p.220.

 

Novatian mentions the Old and New Testaments in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627.

 

The anonymous Treatise on Rebaptism mentions the Old and New Testaments ch.13 p.675

 

Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament and New Testament in The Disputation with Manes ch.41 p.214

Diodorus (262-278 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament in The Disputation with Manes ch.40 p.214

 

Cyprian mentions the Old Testament in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 ch.4 p.509

 

Methodius mentions the Old Testament in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 10 ch.2 p.348

 

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Scriptures in his refutation called Of the Manichaeans ch.5 p.243.

 


2 (Apoc) Apocryphal Books

 

Writer

Cr

Ba

Ig

Pa

Di

Dg

Po

JM

He

Th

Me

Ae

Ir

Te

CA

Hi

Or

JA

Nv

an

Cp

Tobit

-

-

-

-

-

-

1/2

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

B

A

W

-

-

-

W

Judith

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

W

-

A

-

-

-

-

Wisdom

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

Q

-

-

-

-

-

W

Ecclus

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Q

W

Baruch

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

Q

Q

-

-

-

-

W

Bel

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

A

-

-

W

-

-

-

A

Susan

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

W

W

W

W

W

X

-

-

W

3 Holy

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

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Manass

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3 Esdra

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Esdras -general

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1,2 Mac

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Writer

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Time

97/98 A.D.

150 A.D.

168 A.D.

200

225 A.D.              258 A.D.

 

Pages

151 pages

135 pgs

264

854

424

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622

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57 pgs

270

 

Melito of Sardis excluded, Nehemiah, Esther, and the Apocrypha according to

http://www.earlychurch.org.uk/melito.php.

 

1 Clem Judith "the friend" ch.10 p.7; ch.55 p.20 by name

1 Clement mentions the book of Wisdom in First Clement ch.3 p.6

 

Polycarp quotes Tobit 4:10; 12:9 "alms delivers from death" without giving the source in Polycarp's Letter to the Philippians ch.10 p.35

Ignatius quoted Dan 13:52 (from Susanna) p.60. But this is in the longer version only, and we think the shorter version is more accurate.

 

Justin Martyr mentions Esdras in Dialogue with Trypho ch.72 p.234

 

Mention on the story of Susanna as found in Daniel. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.26.3 p.497

 

Both Minucius Felix and Commodianus in their short surviving works did not refer to either the apocrypha or the Old Testament.

 

Tertullian mentions Susanna by name (Dan 13:32) in De Corona ch.4 vol.3 p.95

Tertullian alludes to a phrase in Bel and the Dragon in On Fasting ch.7 vol.4 p.107

 

Clement of Alexandria quotes Tobit 12:8a as scripture. Does not refer to it as Tobit though. p.503

Clement of Alexandria quotes Baruch 3:16-19a p.247

Clement of Alexandria quotes from Ecclesiasticus in ten places on p.225,226,227,228,229,230,231

Clement of Alexandria mentions by name Judith and Susanna p.431

Clement of Alexandria quotes Wisdom 11:24 "For there is nothing which the Lord hates." The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.225

Clement of Alexandria mentions the Maccabees in The Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.467

 

Hippolytus wrote a commentary on Susanna. We have preserved just over three pages. p.193

Hippolytus refers to Tobias in Tobit 3:17 Commentary on Susanna p.193

 

Mention of the Maccabees Origen's De Principiis 2.1.5 p.270. Also 2 Maccabees 7:28 as Maccabees in Origen's Commentary on John ch.18 vol.9 p.306-307.

Origen alludes to Esther in the Septuagint (Esther 4:22) ??? p.330

Origen alludes to Judith (Judith 9:2) in Commentary On John book 2 ch.17 p.335

Origen quotes from 3 Esdras 4:37,41,47 without giving the source in Commentary on John book 3 ch.1 vol.9 p.349

Origen tells Julius Africanus that Susanna is scripture

Origen mentions the apocryphal book of Tobit. Origen's Letter to Julius Africanus ch.12 p.391. Also in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.19 p.51 he mentions "the book of Tobit" and quotes from Tobit 12:7.

Origen alludes to Judith 20:28, incorrectly saying it is in the book of Judges in Commentary On John book 6 ch.7 vol.9 p.357

Origen knew of the Jewish Apocryphal work, The Prayer of Joseph but did not believe it true. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.25 p.341

Origen mentions the Wisdom of Solomon saying it is not accepted as authoritative by all. Origen's De Principiis elucidations p.384. He mentions "Solomon, moreover, on 'Wisdom' and quotes from the Wisdom of Solomon 10:5 in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.29 p.556.

 

Hippolytus quotes from Baruch 3:36, etc. in Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.4 p.225.

 

Novatian does not refer to any apocryphal books

 

Julius Africanus wrote a letter to Origen, that the story of Susanna should not be considered scripture.

 

Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian quotes from Ecclesiasticus 2:10,12 I ch.18 p.663

 

Cyprian refers to Tobit 2:14 as Tobias p.534, also p.551

Cyprian refers to Ecclesiasticus 27:5 as by Solomon in Treatises of Cyprian Testimonies ch.6 p.534, also p.547,551,553

Cyprian refers to Bel and the Dragon ch.5 in Letter 50.6 p.346

Cyprian refers to Baruch 6:6 saying it is by Jeremiah

Cyprian quotes Proverbs 28:28, incorrectly saying it is in the Wisdom of Solomon in Treatises of Cyprian Testimonies ch.6 p.537

Cyprian refers to 1 Maccabees 2:52 saying it is in Maccabees in The Treatises of Cyprian Testimonies ch.15 p.537

 

3 (NT) 27 Books of the New Testament

 

2 Pet 2:17 has a quote from Jesus from Mt 17:5; Mk 9:7; Lk 9:35

 

See the Da Vinci Code paper for more on the New Testament

 

3q Qualification

 

Paul has a quote from an unknown source in Eph 5:14


4 (Other) Other Books

 

Early Christian writers referred to each other, as well as some books we do not have today. The top row is the person writing, and the left column is the person or book referred to.

 

Writer

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CA

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JA

Nv

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1 Enoch

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1/2

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

Assumption of Moses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

 

1/2

 

 

 

 

Cr

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

A

-

-

-

-

Ba

O

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

Ig

O

-

O

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pa

O

-

-

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Di

O

O

O

-

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dg

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Po

O

O

-

-

-

O

O

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Jm

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

He

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

O

-

-

-

W

X

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

Th

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Me

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ae

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

-

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ir

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

O

O

O

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

Te

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ca

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

O

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hi

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

-

-

-

Or

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

O

W

-

-

-

Ju

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

W

O

-

-

-

Nv

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

O

X

X

An

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

-

O

-

Cp

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

-

-

-

O

Preach. of Peter

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Time

97/98 A.D.

150 A.D.

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225 A.D.              258 A.D.

Pages

151 pages

135 pgs

264

854

424

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1/2 for Tertullian means that Tertullian thought it should be scripture, but he acknowledged that most did not accept it as scripture.

1/2 for Origen means he mentions it, and it is ambiguous whether he believes it inspired or not.

 

Polycarp mentions Ignatius' latter in Polycarp's Letter to the Philippians ch.13 p.36

 

Irenaeus mentions Clement of Rome writing to the Corinthians. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3 p.416

Irenaeus mentions Polycarp writing a letter to the Philippians. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3 p.416

Irenaeus mentions Justin [Martyr] in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.2 p.468.

Irenaeus refers to the Shepherd of Hermas as scripture. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.2 p.488

Irenaeus mentions the Preaching of Peter

 

Preaching of Peter. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.490-491, 510

 

Tertullian mentions the Book of Enoch as Scripture. He added that some to not regard this as scripture, as it was supposed it would not have survived the flood, and it is not in the Jewish canon either. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.3 p.15-16

Tertullian mentions Tatian, disciple of Justin Martyr in Against All Heresies ch.7 p.654

Tertullian mentions Irenaeus in Against the Valentinians ch.5 p.506

 

Clement of Alexandria refers to the Shepherd of Hermas in The Stromata book 1 ch.17 p.319 and book 6 ch.6 p.491

Refers to Clement of Rome. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 5 ch.12 p.4763; book 14 ch.17 p.428

Refers to Barnabas' writing. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 5 ch.10 p.459

 

Origen mentions the Ascension of Moses (Assumption of Moses) in de Principiis book 3 ch.2 p.328.

Origen alludes to 1 Clement 55 in Commentary On John book 6 ch.36 p.376

Origen refers to "The Shepherd" in Commentary On John book 1 ch.18 p.207

Quote from the Shepherd of Hermas. Origen's De Principiis 2.1.5 p.270

Origen mentions "The Prayer of Joseph" as an apocryphal work. He did not recommend it though. Origen's Commentary on John ch.25 p.341

Origen quotes from the Book of Enoch ch.17 referring to it as "Enoch" Origen's De Principiis 4.1.35 p.380

 


 

"Hence, therefore, may the lovers of learning and of antiquity understand the history, and see that those things are recent which are told by us apart from the holy prophets." Theophilus to Autolychus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 2 ch.32 p.107

 

"...the dates of events ascertained, that the chronological connections may be opened up, and thus the reckonings of the various annals be made to give forth light. We must go abroad into the histories and literature of all nations. And, in fact, we have already brought the proof in part before you, in giving those hints as to how it is to be effected." Tertullian's Apology ch.19 p.33

 

Historian

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Apion

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X

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

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Josephus Flavius (Jewish historian)

X

-

X

-

-

X

X

X

X

X

X

-

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Berosus (Chaldean historian)

X

-

X

-

-

-

X

-

 

 

-

X

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-

 

King Hieromus of Tyre (historian)

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-

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-

X

-

 

 

-

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King Juba

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-

-

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X

-

 

 

-

-

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Manetho (Egyptian historian)

-

-

X

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Thalles/Thallus (Samaritan wrote History)

X

-

X

-

-

-

X

X

 

 

-

X

-

-

 

GRECO-ROMAN HISTORIANS

Acusilaus

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

-

X

-

-

 

Alexander Polyhistor

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

-

X

-

-

 

Antoninus Julianus

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Aurelius Verus

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Cassio Severus / Cassius

-

-

-

-

-

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X

X

 

 

-

-

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-

 

Castor (historian)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

-

X

-

-

 

Charon of Lampsacus (before Herodotus)

-

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X

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-

-

-

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Ctesias the historian

-

-

-

-

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-

X

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Cornelius Nepos

-

-

-

-

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X

X

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Demetrius Phalereus the grammarian

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Diodorus -Greek wrote Bibliothecae

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

X

 

 

-

X

-

-

 

Eumelus (historian)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

-

-

-

-

 

Hecataeus (historian)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

X

-

-

-

 

Hellanicus (Athenian historian)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

-

X

-

-

 

Herodotus (historian)

-

-

X

-

X

-

X

-

X

X

X

X

-

-

 

Hesiod (historian in verse)

X

-

X

-

X

-

-

X

X

X

 

-

-

-

 

Homer (Illiad, Odyssey)

X

-

X

-

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

-

-

-

 

Marcus Aurelius' Letters

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Neander

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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X

-

-

-

 

Philochorus (Athenian historian)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

-

X

-

-

 

Pisistratus

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Polemo/Polemon (wrote Greek History, successor to Xenocrates)

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

 

X

X

-

-

 

Pliny the Younger

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ptolemy the Mendesian historian

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

 

 

-

X

-

-

 

Ptolemy Philadelphus

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Strabo

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Suetonius

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Tacitus (Cornelius Tacitus)

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Themistocles (History of)

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-

X

-

-

-

X

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Thucydides

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

 

Writer

JM

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Time

97/98 A.D.

150 A.D.

168 A.D.

200

225 A.D.              258 A.D.

Pages

151 pages

135 pgs

264

854

25

424

225

622

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57 pgs

270

 

There are conflicting dates about when Homer lived. The ancient Greek historian Aristarchus says 1044 B.C., authorities in Philostratus says 1159 B.C., and pseudo-Herodotus The Life of Homer puts it as 1102 B.C.  In contrast to that the historian Theopompus said Homer lived as late as 685 B.C.. Herodotus says it was not earlier than about 730 B.C.. The Exodus was about 1447 B.C. See the Encyclopaedia Britannica under Homer for more info.

 

Justin Martyr mentions Homer. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.18 p.168

 

Tatian mentions Apion.

 

Theophilus refers to Homer and Hesiod. To Autolychus ch.8 p.97

Theophilus refers to Aurelius Verus in To Autolychus ch.27 p.120

Theophilus refers to Thallus in To Autolychus ch.29 p.120

Theophilus refers to Berossus in To Autolychus ch.29 p.121

Theophilus refers to Homer and Hesiod in To Autolychus ch.30 p.121

Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 3 ch.26 p.119 mentions Themistocles and his history.

 

Josephus mentions Homer according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica vol.11 (1956) p.689.

 

Tertullian mentions Demosthenes for his eloquence, Themistocles for his warlike genius, Alexander, Polycrates, Croesus, Pompey, Tullius, Sylla, Crassus in Tertullian's Apology ch.11 p.28

 

Not mentioned: Abydenus (2nd century B.C. writer)

 

Justin mentions Alexander Polyhistor, Castor, Polemon and his book Hellenics, Apion son of Posidonius and his book Against the Jews, Hellanicus, Philochorus, Thallus, Philo, Josephus, in Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.9 p.277

 

Theophilus of Antioch mentions Herodotus and Thucydides in Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.2 p.111.

Theophilus to Autolychus ch.29 p.120 mentions Thallus, as well as the earlier Chaldean historian Berosus on p.121.

Theophilusrefers to Josephus (p.118).

 

Athenagoras: Both Herodotus and Alexander learned from the Egyptian priests at Heliopolis that the gods had been men. A Plea for Christians ch.28 p.143

Athenagoras mentions Homer, Herodotus, and Hesiod. A Plea for Christians ch.17 p.136

 

Minucius Felix mentions Nepos, Cassius, Thallus, Diodorus as historians in The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.22 p.186

Historians Thallus and Diodorus The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.22 p.186

Historians Nepo and Cassius The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.12 p.186

Historians Josephus Flaxius and Antoninus Julianus The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.33 p.194

 

Anatolius of Cappadocia mentions Josephus the historian.

 

Tertullian mentions Ctesias the historian in Tertullian's Apology ch.9 p.26.

Tertullian mentions Diodorus , Thalles, Cassio Severus, and Cornelius Nepos in Tertullian's Apology ch.10 p.26

Tertullian mentions Cornelius Tacitus p.31

Tertullian mentions Ptolemy Philadelphus, Pisistratus, Demetrius Phalereus the grammarian p.32

Tertullian mentions Ptolemy the Mendesian, Manetho the Egyptian, Berosus the Chaldean, Hieromus the Phoenician, Thallus, Josephus in Tertullian's Apology ch.19 p.33

Tertullian mentions Apion and King Juba in Tertullian's Apology ch.19 p.33

Tertullian mentions Marcus Aurelius' letters in Apology ch.5 p.22

Tertullian mentions the historian Tacitus in Tertullian's Apology ch.16 p.31

Tertullian mentions the learned man Ptolemy Philadelphus, Pisistratus, and the grammarian Demetrius Phalereus in Tertullian's Apology ch.18 p.32

Tertullian mentions Manetho the Egyptian, Berosus the Chaldean, Hieromus the Phoenician king of Tyre, Ptolemy the Mendesian, Demetrius Phalereus, King Juba, Apion, Thallus, Josephus in Tertullian's Apology ch.19 p.33

(Atlantis) Tertullian mentions Plato informing us that a region larger than Asia or Africa was seized by the Atlantic Ocean, and an earthquake drank up the Corinthian Sea in Tertullian's Apology ch.21 p.47

Tertullian mentions Herodotus, Charon of Lampsacus, and Strabo in A Treatise on the Soul ch.46 p.224.

 

Clement of Alexandria refers to Hesiod in The Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.468

Clement of Alexandria mentions Homer in The Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.468

Clement of Alexandria mentions Polemon in The Stromata book 7 ch.6 p532

 

Hippolytus mentions the heretic Justinus and the historian Herodotus in The Refutation of All Heresies book.5.

 

Origen refers to the historian Hecataeus p.402

Origen mentions the historian Herodotus in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.34 p.558

Mention of Josephus Flavius and his Antiquities of the Jews. Origen in Against Celsus book 4 ch.11 p.501. Also in his Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.17 p.424

Origen refers to Homer p. p.613

 

 

Medical Doctor

JM

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Andreas the physician

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X

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Asclepiades the physician (born in Bithynia, practiced in Rome 1st century B.C.

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X

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Diocles the physician

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X

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Erasistratus the physician

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X

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Herophilus the physician

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X

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Hippocrates the physician

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X

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X

Soranus of Ephesus (during Trajan)

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X

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X

Strato the physician

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X

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Cyprian refers to Hippocrates and Soranus in Letter 75.13 p.401.

 

Tertullian refers to the physicians Diocles, Erasistratus, Herophilus, Hippocrates, Soranus, and Strato in A Treatise on the Soul ch.15 p.194

 

 

 

Scientist

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Archimedes

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X

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X

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Aristarchus of Samos (Sun orbirts the earth)

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X

X

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Apollonius the {Egyptian] mathematician

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X

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X

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Hipparchus the astronomer

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X

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X

X

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Philolaus (philosopher too)

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X

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X

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Lucullus

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X

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Lactantius mentions Archimedes

 

Lucullus was the first to introduce the cherry from Pontus to Italy Tertullian's Apology ch.11 p.27

 

Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 3 ch.16 p.116- mentions Apollonius the Egyptian calculated that the earth was created 153,075 years ago.

 

Hippolytus mentions astronomers Hipparchus p.29, Archimedes p.29, Apollonius the mathematician p.29, Aristarchus of Samos p.28

 

 


The early church writers quoted many non-Christian authors and books too, but without saying any were scripture. Why did they quote so many? I will let Hippolytus and Origen answer that.

 

Hippolytus: "We must not overlook any figment devised by those denominated philosophers among the Greeks. For even their incoherent tenets must be received as worthy of credit, on account of the excessive madness of the heretics; who, from the observance of silence, and from concealing their own ineffable mysteries, have by many been supposed worshippers of God. .. but refuting them in coarse digest; not having considered it requisite to bring to light their secret doctrines, in order that, when we have explained their tenets by enigmas, they, becoming ashamed, lest also, by our divulging their mysteries, we should convict them of atheism, might be induced to desist in some degree from their unreasonable opinion and profane attempt." The Refutation of All Heresies book 1 preface p.9-10.

 

Origen: "For we, too, desired both to learn and set forth these things, in order that sorcerers might not, under pretext of knowing more than we, delude those who are easily carried away by the glitter of names. And I could have given many more illustrations to show that we are acquainted with the opinions of these deluders, and that we disown them, as being alien to our, and impious, and not in harmony with the doctrines of true Christians, of which we are ready to make confession even to the death. It must be noticed, too, that those who have drawn up this array of fictions, have, from neither understanding magic, nor discriminating the meaning of holy Scripture, thrown everything into confusion; ..." Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.32 p.588

 

Jewish Commentator

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Philo of Alexandria (philosopher)

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X

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X

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Tatian mentions Philo.

Justin mentions Philo and Josephus in Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.9 p.277

Clement of Alexandria refers to Philo the Jew p.306

 

Origen refers to Philo

 


Greek and Roman Authors

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Philosopher or Writer