Topical Index Christianity
The following is paraphrases and quotes from early Christian writers.
For an online copy of the early Church writers, see
Topical Index Christianity * The Bible - Unfinished * First Clement, of Rome 96/98 A.D. (Greek) * Letter to Diognetus c.130 A.D. (Greek) * Polycarp to the Philippians 100-155 A.D. * The Apology of Aristides - 125 A.D. * Martyrdom of Polycarp - c.169 A.D. * Ignatius - died 107/116 A.D. * The Letter of Barnabas 100-150 A.D. * Papias Fragments - died 163 A.D. * Justin Martyr - 135-165 A.D. * Didache - c.125 A.D. * Second Clement 2nd century A.D. - not started * Shepherd of Hermas 160 A.D. - Unfinished * Claudius Apollinaris, Bishop of Hierapolis 160-180 A.D. * Melito of Sardis - wrote 170-180 A.D. - Not started * Rhodon c.180 A.D. * Rhodon c.180 A.D. * Theophilus, Bishop of Caesarea 180 A.D. * Maximus, Bishop of Jerusalem 185-190 A.D. * Theophilus of Antioch - wrote 168-181/188 A.D. * Tatian - 110-172 A.D. * The Diatessaron of Tatian - to 172 A.D. * Alexander of Cappadocia - 170-233-251 A.D. - not started * Athenagoras - 177 A.D. * Hegesippus -170-180 A.D. - not started * Caius Fragments - c.170 A.D. not started * Irenaeus - wrote 182-188 A.D. - Unfinished * Polycrates, Bishop pf Ephesus c.196 A.D. * Clement of Alexandria 193-217/220 A.D. - Unfinished * Tertullian 200-240 A.D. - Unfinished * Anonymous from Tertullian's Time - c.200-240 A.D. * The Octavius of Minucius Felix - 210 A.D. * Hippolytus 222-235/6 A.D. - unfinished * The Instructions of Commodianus - c.240 A.D. * Julius Africanus - wrote 232-245 A.D. * Gregory Thaumaturgus - 240-265 A.D. * Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria - 200-246-265 A.D. * Novatian -254-256 A.D. - not started * Bardaisan of Syria 154-222 A.D. * Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage - wrote 246-258 A.D. - not started * Cornelian to Cyprian 246-256 A.D. * Firmilian to Cyprian 246-256 A.D. * Nemesianus, Dativus, Felix, and Victor to Cyprian (246-256 A.D.) 1 page p.404,405; 421 * Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (246-256 A.D.) 1/2 page p.405-406 * Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian - 254-256 A.D. not started * Theognostus of Alexandria - 260 A.D. not started * Methodius - 260-312 A.D. not started * Arnobius - 297-303 A.D. not started * Lactantius - 260-325 A.D. - unfinished * Venantius - (325 A.D.) - not started * Anatolius - 230-270-280 A.D. * Diodorus 270-280 A.D. - not started * Asterius Urbanus c.232 A.D. - not started * Dionysius, Bishop of Rome - 259-269 A.D. - not started * Pierius of Alexandria - 275 A.D. * Malchion - 270 A.D. - not started * Archelaus - 262-278 A.D. - not started * Peter, Bishop of Alexandria - 260-300-311 A.D. not started * Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria - 273-313-326 A.D. not started * Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria - 282-300 A.D. * Alexander, Bishop of Lycopolis - 301 A.D. - not started * Phileas of Thmuis, in Egypt - martyred 307 A.D. - not started * Victorinus died 304 A.D. - not started * Pamphilus 309 A.D. - not started * Origen of Alexandria - 225-254 A.D. - unfinished * Eusebius - not started * Athanasius - lived c.297-373 A.D. - not started * Hilary of Poitiers - 300-367 A.D. not started * Cyril of Jerusalem - c.315-335-386 A.D. - not started * Basil - 329/330-379 A.D. - not started * Gregory Nanzianzus c.330-391 A.D. - not started * Gregory of Nyssa - 331/335/336-395 A.D. - not started * John Chrysostom - not started * Ephraim the Syrian - c.306-378 A.D. - not started * Aphrahat - not started * Sulpitius Severus - 363-420 A.D. - not started * Ambrose of Milan - wrote 368-397 A.D. - not started * Theodoret - c.393-423-458 A.D. - not started * Jerome - 342-420 A.D. - not started * Nestorius' Bazaar of Heracleides 451/452 A.D. * Patrick of Ireland - c.389-461 A.D. - not started * John of Damascus - not started * Miscellaneous *
The Bible - Unfinished
Adam and the Fall Genesis 1:26-31; 2:8-5:1; Luke 3:38; Romans 5:12-19; 1 Corinthians 15:45-49; Jude 14
Cain killing Abel his brother Genesis 4
Noah's ark 1 Peter 3:20-21; Genesis 5:28-10:1;9:29 (950 yrs)
Drowned in Noah's flood. Genesis 6-7; Matthew 24:37
Abraham Genesis 12-25; Galatians 3:6-9; Romans 4:1-25; Hebrews 11:17-19; James 2:21-23
Nearly sacrificing Isaac Genesis 22
Lot Genesis 11:31; 13-14,19, 2 Peter 2:7
Lot's lewd neighbors and Lot's wife Genesis 18-19
Isaac Genesis 21;22;24;26;35:28-9; Hebrews 11:18-20; Jms 2:21-23
Jacob Genesis 25:19-33; 35,48-49; Hebrews 11:20-1
Pharaoh, cruel to God's people Exodus 1,5-14; Romans 9:16-17
Pharaoh's magicians Exodus 7:11-12; 8:7,19; 9:11
Egyptian killed by Moses. Exodus 2:11-5; Acts 7:23-8
Potiphar Genesis 39:1-6,19-20
Potiphar's wife Genesis 39:6-20
Joseph Genesis 37, 39-48,50; 1 Chronicles 2:1; Hebrews 11:22
Cupbearer in Joseph's prison Genesis 41:9-13
Benjamin Genesis 42:36;43:14;46:19;49:27
Job Book of Job, Ezekiel 15:20; James 5:11
Moses' parents Exodus 2:1-9; 1 Chronicles 6:3; Hebrews 11:23
Miriam, Moses' sister Ex2:4-8;15:21; Num12
Moses Ex-Num; Dt 34; Hebrews 11:23-29; Jude 9
Midianite Genesis 25:1-4; Exodus 2:15-21; Judges 6-7; 1 Chronicles 1:32
Aaron, Moses' brother Exodus 4:14-16,27-31; 17:10; Num 12:1-5; Num 17;Ex 16-19; 1 Chronicles 6:50
Moses' wife Zipporah Exodus 2:17-22; 4:24-26
David 1 Samuel 16-31; 2 Sam; 1 Kings 11:12,38; Ps 51; Luke 20:42-44; Hebrews 11:32
Goliath, slain by David 1 Samuel 17
Solomon 1 Kings 1-11; 2 Chronicles 1-9; Matthew 1:6;6:29
Queen of Sheba 1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chronicles 9:1-12; Matthew 12:42
Angels Gabriel and Michael Daniel 8:16; 10:13,21; 12:1; Luke 1:19,26; Jude 9
Jonah Book of Jonah, 2 Kings 14:25; Matthew 12:38-41
100,000 Jonah preached to after being swallowed by a big fish. Jonah, Matthew 12:41
Elijah (Elias) 1 Kings 17-22; 2 Kings 1-2; 10:17; James 5:17
Elisha 2 Kings 2-9
Gog/Magog Genesis 10:2; 1 Chronicles 1:5; Ezekiel 38; Revelation 20:8-9
John the Baptist Luke 1:11-7;3:1-20; 7:18-30,33; John 3:22-36
Zechariah, his father Luke 1:5-25,39,59,62-63
Elizabeth, John's mother Luke 1:7,12
Virgin birth of Jesus Matthew 1:18-25; Luke 1:27-38;2:6-21
Jesus Matthew 25:31-46; Luke 10:16; 12:9; John 1:29; 5:16-
Jesus, the Word of God John 1:1
Jesus' ascending to Heaven Luke 24:50-53; Acts 1:1-11
Jesus' disciples Matthew 14:32-33;28:9; Luke 5:1-11; 6:12-16; John 21:15-25; Ephesians 2:20; 2 Peter 3:15-16
"You have filled my heart with greater joy than when their [others'] grain and new wine abound." (Ps 4:7)
"Listen to my cry for help, my King and my God, for to you I pray. Morning by morning, O LORD, you hear my voice; morning by morning I lay my requests before you and wait in expectation." (Psalm 5:2-3 David is speaking)
"May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be pleasing in your sight, O LORD, my Rock and my Redeemer" Psalm 19:14
"Show me your ways, O LORD, teach me your paths; guide me in your truth and teach me, for you are God my Savior and my hope is in you all day long. Remember, O LORD, your great mercy and love, for they are from of old." Psalm 25:4-6 (David is speaking.)
"O God, you are my God, earnestly I seek you; my soul thirsts for you, my body longs for you, in a dry and weary land where there is no water." (Psalm 63:1 David is speaking from the desert of Judah.)
"Though we live in the world, we do not wage war as the world does. The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds. We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God..." 2 Corinthians 10:3-5a.
1 Peter 3:15 "But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have." (NIV)
"fight the good fight of faith" (1 Tim 6:12) , to be "set for the defense of the gospel" (Php 1:17), to "earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints" (Jude 3), "to be able to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict" (Titus 1:9), to "put to the test those who call themselves apostles but are not" (Rev. 2:2), to "beware of the false prophets, who came to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves" (Matt 7:15), to "examine everything. carefully, hold fast to that which is good" (1 Thess. 21), "with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition, if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading them to the knowledge of the truth" (2 Tim 2:24), to follow the example of Paul and Apollos who "rigorously refuted the Jews in public debate, proving from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ" (Acts 18:28)
"Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit." Ephesians 5:18
"My soul with be satisfied as with the richest of foods; with singing lips my mouth will praise you." (Psalm 63:5)
"I seek you with all my heart; do not let me stray from your commands. I have hidden your word in my heart that I might no sin against you." Psalm 119:10-11
"'As for me, this is my covenant with them' says the LORD. 'My Spirit, who is on you, and my words that I have put in your mouth will not depart from your mouth, or from the mouths of your children, or from the mouths of their descendants from this time on and forever,' says the LORD." Isaiah 59:21 NIV
"They dress the wound of my people as though it were not serious. 'Peace, peace,' they say, when there is no peace. Are they ashamed of their loathsome conduct? No, they have no shame at all; ..." Jeremiah 8:11-12
"I the LORD do not change." (Malachi 3:6a)
After over 1,400 years of preparation, imagine how the Jews felt when the prophet John the Baptist said of Jesus "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29).
John 14:6 "Jesus answered, 'I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me." (NKJV, NIV)
1 Timothy 6:20-21 "O Timothy! Guard what was committed to your trust, avoiding the profane and idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge-- by professing it some have strayed concerning the faith. Grace be with you. Amen."
Hebrews 10:4 says, "because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins."
As Hebrews 10 points out, man's repeated animal sacrifices were a shadow of God's real sacrifice. They merely covered over the sins until forgiven, once and for all, by the sacrifice God chose.
God made a special covenant with the Jews. (Ex 24:2-8) Yet being a Jew does not guarantee heaven. Jesus told the Jewish Pharisees, "if you do not believe that I am He (Messiah), you will die in your sins." (John 8:24) God's salvation was told through Jews (John 4:27). They were entrusted with the words of God (Romans 3:1-2). Yet in Christ Gal 3:28-29 says, "there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. And if you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise."
God promised to preserve His word in Isaiah 55:10-11; 59:21; 1 Peter 1:24-25, Matthew 24:35. Ultimately we have to believe either God is trustworthy or He is not.
Jesus and the New Testament confirmed the Old Testament scriptures in Matthew 19:4; 22:32,37; 39; 23:35; Mark 10:3-6; Luke 2:23-24; 4:4; 11:51; 20:37; 24:27,44
Genesis 16:1 shows it was Sarai, not Abraham, who was sterile. Abraham had more children, but Sarai did not.
Deuteronomy 18:15-18 says God will raise up a prophet, that they will hear, like Moses from their midst, among their brethren. Was Jesus a prophet? Did many Jews hear Jesus? Was Jesus among the Jews? Was Jesus a Jew? Muslims should have no problem agreeing that this verse fits Jesus more than Mohammed. Here are a few more points.
a. Deuteronomy 33:1-2 says "the Lord", and Muslims do not call Mohammed their Lord. ('Alawite Muslims and other Ghulat groups consider Mohammed God, but they are exceptions.)
b. Deuteronomy 34:10 that "since then there has not arisen in Israel a prophet like Moses." This epitaph was written, probably by Joshua, long before Jesus came.
c. Deuteronomy 34:10 mentions "face to face", and Mohammed never said he got his words directly from Allah, but through angels (Sura 2:97). Jesus communicated directly with God the Father according to John 1:18 and other passages.
d. The next verse, 34:11, says no other prophet did those awesome miracles like Moses did. Mohammed, according to what was written in the Qur'an (Sura 17:90-93) never performed miracles like these, except for reciting the Qur'an. (The Qur'an contradicts what later Muslim traditions in the Hadiths say.)
e. Finally, Jesus' apostle Peter said this was fulfilled in Jesus in Acts 3:22-26. The apostle Peter would be in a great position to know.
1. Either, Jesus made a great mistake allowing a deceiver like Peter to mislead people for almost 2,000 years who were trying to follow God, and God did not lift a finger to tell people the truth.
2. Or, Jesus knew what He was doing when he selected Peter, and God did not correct something that needed no correction.
3. Or else, Peter did not say that, and the book of Acts was corrupted prior to the first extra-Biblical mention we have of this referring to Christ, which was about 138 A.D.
In the Old Testament, the metaphor of God being a Father was very common. Isaiah 63:16; Jeremiah 3:19; 13:9; Malachi 2:10; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14; 22:10; 28:6; Psalm 2:7; Prov 3:12; Hosea 11:1.
God made a promise to David about his son Solomon, "He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son...." (2 Samuel 7:13-14)
Not everyone respected God as a Father though. Malachi 1:6 says, "'a son honors his father, and a servant his master. If I am a father, where is the honor due me? If I am a master, where is the respect due me?' says the LORD Almighty...."
Proverbs 30:4f says, "What is his name, and the name of his son? Tell me if you know!"
In Revelation 21:6 we have the precious promise that "He who overcomes will inherit all this, and I will be his God and he will be my son."
Matthew 6:31-33 says, "So do not worry, saying, 'What shall we eat?' or 'What shall we drink?' or 'What shall we wear?' For the pagans run after all these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them." (Matthew 6:31-32). But God taking care of you is not automatic. The next verse says, "But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well."
"Which of you, if his son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, will give him a snake? If you, then, though you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will our Father in heaven give good gifts to those who ask him!" (Matthew 7:9-11)
God says, "He will call out to me, 'You are me Father, my God, the Rock my Savior'" (Ps. 89:26)
Zephaniah 3:17 says is amazing: "The LORD your God is with you, he is mighty to save. He will take great delight in you, he will quiet you with his love, he will rejoice over you with singing." Why would the God of the universe, who all of Creation to see, and all of the angels to obey Him, take great delight in us? Scripture says that He does though. Romans 8:19 says, "The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed."
We are not born as children of God; we need to become a child of God. Rather, we are born sinful (Psalm 51) and are separated from God (Ephesians 2:1-5,12)
The Bible says there is only One God and no other. Deut 6:4 Is 43:10-12
The Bible says the Father is God.
Eph 5:20, Titus 1:4, 1 Peter1:3, Phil 1:2
The Bible says Jesus is God. John 1:1,18, Hosea 1:7, Is 7:14, John 20:28, Titus 2:13, Hebrews 1:8-9
2. The Bible says there is only One Lord.
1 Corinthians 8:6, Ephesians 4:5
The Bible says the Father is Lord.
Matthew 4:7-10 Luke 4:8-12,18 1 Timothy 6:15
The Bible says Jesus is Lord.
1 Corinthians 12:3 Philippians 1:2, 2:11, John 20:13,28
3. The Bible says the Father the King of Kings and Lord of Lords. 1 Timothy 6:15
The Bible says Jesus the King of Kings and Lord of Lords. Revelation 17:14, 19:16
Titus 3:3-7 says, "At one time we too were foolish, disobedient, deceived and enslaved by all kinds of passions and pleasures. We lived in malice and envy, being hated and hating one another. But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, he saved us, not because of the righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life."
"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life." (John 3:16)
We are children of God by adoption, as Romans 8:18, 23; 9:4; Galatians 4:5; Ephesians 1:5 show. We have also received a new second birth. This is the born again experience Jesus taught us about. Read it for yourself in John 3:1-21.
Jesus said in John 14:6, "...I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me."
"That if you confess with your mouth, 'Jesus is Lord,' and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and as saved. As the Scripture says, 'Anyone who trusts in him will never be put to shame.'" (Romans 10:9-10)
"because those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. For you did not receive a spirit that makes you a slave again to fear, but you received the Spirit of sonship. And by him we cry, 'Abba, Father.' The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are God's children." (Romans 8:14-16)
"...the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, for, 'Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.'" (Romans 10:12b-13)
Jesus Himself said He was God in John 8:58. Jesus answered, "before Abraham was born, I am!" The word "I am," was the divine name of God, used countless times in the Old Testament. This word "YHWH" in Hebrew, is explained as the "personal name" of God in Exodus 3:14-15, 20:5; Isaiah 42:8; 44:6, this personal name of God has been lost to Muslims. Now the Jews either understood Jesus' communication correctly when they picked up stones to stone Him, or else they misunderstood Jesus' communication. Jesus could have said "there is a mistake here, you misunderstand me. I do not claim to be God like you say." However, there is no record of Jesus ever saying there was any mistake. On the contrary, we have records of the apostles, as well as their disciples, reiterating that Jesus is God.
The Jew's responded directly to Jesus' claim in John 10:33: "'We are not stoning you for any of these', replied the Jews, 'but for blasphemy, because you, a mere man, claim to be God.'"
Jesus replied to them that
1) Since Scripture called non-divine being "gods" in Psalm 82:6-7, how much more fitting it is it to call the One uniquely set apart as God's Son.
2) Even if you will not believe Jesus' words alone, at least consider the miracles to understand that the Father is in Jesus and Jesus is in the Father.
Negative affirmation: Jesus said of the Pharisees, "if you do not believe that I am the One I claim to be, you will indeed die in your sins." John 8:24b.
Positive affirmation of Thomas: Thomas the disciple called Jesus God in John 20:28. Thomas even went further than that. John 20:28 actually says that Thomas said to Jesus, "My Lord and my God!" Jesus replied to Thomas, "Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed." Jesus has no hint of rebuke toward Thomas. Indeed, the only remotely negative thing Jesus said is that those who have not seen Jesus in person and believe (this about Jesus) are more blessed than those who have seen Jesus and believe this.
Jesus would send His angels in Matthew 13:41, which are the angels of God (Luke 12:8-9; 15:10).
Jesus said he would judge the world (Matthew 24:31-46, 25:31-3; John 5:21-22, 27). Yet is God who is coming to judge the world (Psalm 50:1-6; Joel 3:12; Deuteronomy 32:35)
"All that belongs to the Father is mine." John 16:15a. Now it is easy to understand someone saying "All that belongs to me I give to God", but Jesus says, "All that belongs to the Father is mine." I have never heard anyone explain how this could be a true statement and Jesus not be God.
Jesus Himself told Satan that no one should be worshipped and served except God (Matthew 4:10 and Luke 4:8).
From a leper Jesus accepted worship (Matthew 8:2)
The women at the tomb worshipped Jesus, clasping his feet, in Matthew 28:9
God sent the wise men to worship Jesus (Matthew 2:2), and we should worship too.
The disciples of Jesus, after Jesus walked on water, worshipped Him in Matthew 14:33. None of the disciples ever heard Jesus say this was wrong.
After Jesus rose from the dead, the disciples worshipped Him in Luke 24:52 and Matthew 28:17.
The angel of God refused to allow anyone to worship him (the angel) in Revelation 19:10 and 22:8-9. Likewise, Paul and Barnabas refused worship of themselves in Acts 14:11-16.
Jesus had authority over demons and Jesus said His miracles spoke for him (John 10:25). The Old Testament prophesied of Jesus. Jesus also said that no one came to the Father except through Him (John 14:6; 6:45; ~8:24)
Jesus said we are to honor the Son just as we honor the Father (John 5:23)
Request for prayer in Jesus' name John 14:13-14; 15:7
The Father and Jesus "own" all in common. John 16:15;17:10.
On earth the Father lived in Jesus. John 10:38;14:10-11.
On earth Jesus was in the Father. John 10:38;14:11
If you really know Jesus, then you know the Father and have seen the Father. John 14:7-9
Jesus said, "I and the Father are one" in John 10:30.
Jesus had authority, for he said, "You have heard it said, ... but I say to you" (Matthew 5:21-22, 78-78)
Jesus can meet our needs in a way that only God can. "If any man is thirsty, let Him come to Me and drink" in John 7:37. See also John 4:14.
Jesus gave His peace to us; He did not say the Father's peace in John 14:27.
In John 6:35 Jesus said He was the bread of life.
Jesus said for us to "believe also in Me." In John 14:1b. Do you believe in Jesus? See also John 11:25.
Jesus said for all who are weary and heavy-laden to come to Him in Matthew 11:28. This offer is still available today, so come to Jesus.
Only God can forgive sins, and Jesus forgave sins against God, then Jesus was showing that He was God in Matthew 9:2-6; Mark 2:5-12, and Luke 5:20-23. Jesus first said to the paralytic "Son, your sins are forgiven you." The scribes said Jesus was speaking blasphemy, because no on can forgive sins but God alone. Jesus did not contradict their statement. He merely asked a question: "Why do you reason about these things in your hearts? Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, 'your sins are forgiven you,' or to say, 'Arise, take up your bed and walk? But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins' - He said to the paralytic, 'I say to you, arise, take up your bed, and go to your house.' And immediately the paralytic rose up and did that!
In Luke 7:48-50, Jesus also told the woman who anointed His feet "Your sins are forgiven." Those who sat with Him said, "Who is this who even forgives sins?"
Jesus and the Father have the same nature (Philippians 2:5)
Both are rightfully worshipped (Hebrews 1:6)
Both rightfully called God (John 1:1; Hebrews 1:8,9)
Both are prayed to (Acts 7:7:59-60)
Everything in the world was created through Christ (John 1:3, 10, Colossians 1:16)
Everything is sustained through Christ (Col 1:17)
The fullness of deity is in Jesus (Colossians 1:19).
Jesus is called God in 2 Corinthians 11:3 and Titus 2:13
Jesus is worshipped in Heaven in Revelation 5:8-9; 22:20
Isaiah 7:14 says there would be one born called Emmanuel, that is, "God with us".
Psalm 110:1 says, "The Lord said to my Lord...". Who is this Lord who was prophesied about 1,000 years before Jesus? By the way, this is one of the most quoted Old Testament verses in the New Testament. This is an unsolvable mystery to Muslims as it is to Jews. Jesus answered this riddle, by saying it referred to himself.
Creator. Genesis 1:1; Isaiah 42:5, John 1:1-3; Heb. 1:8,10; Col 1:16
Bridegroom. Isaiah 62:5; Jeremiah 2:2, Mt 25:1; John 3:29; Rev 21:2
First and Last. Isaiah 44:6; 43:10f, Rev 1:17; 2:8; 22:12-13
Every knee will bow to.... Isaiah 45:22-23, Philippians 2:10-11
Forgiver of sins. Ps 130:4; Jeremiah 31:34, Acts 5:31; 13:38; Col 3:13
Giver of bread. Exodus 16:4-15, John 6:35,40-51; 53-58
Giver of life. Gen. 1:30; Dt. 32:39; 1 Sam. 2:6, John 5:21,25,29; 6:63; 10:10
Gives living water. Jeremiah 2:13; Isaiah 55:1, John 4:10
God, Isaiah 10:20-21; 43:10; Ps 89:2-6, John 20:28; Titus 2:13
Healer. Exodus 15:26; Psalm 103:3, Mark 5:30; Acts 9:34; Mt 4:23; 9:35
Holy One. Isaiah 41:16; 43:15; Habakkuk 1:12, John 6:69
Husband. Hosea 2:16; Isaiah 50:2; Jeremiah 3:1,14, Eph 5:28-33; Rom 7:4
Judge the living and the dead. Isaiah 33:22; Ps 50:4,6, 2 Tim 4:1; John 5:22,27
Judgment seat. Romans 6:5; 14:10, 2 Corinthians 5:10
King, Psalm 5:2; 1 Samuel 12:12; Malachi 1:4, Matthew 27:11; Mark 15:2; John 18:37-38
Life. Deuteronomy 30:32, Mk 12:10; John 14:6; 1 John 1:1-2; 5:11-12
Light. Ps 27:1; Micah 7:8, John 1:9; 8:12
Lord. Psalm 110:1; Mark 12:36, Mt 12:8; Mk 12:36; John 13:13; James 2:1
Lord of Lords. Deuteronomy. 10:17, Revelation 17:14; 19:16
Mighty God. Joshua 22:22; Job 9:19, Isaiah 9:6
Must believe in. Ps 78:21-22,32; Isaiah 43:10, John 6:29-30; 8:24; 11:25; 14:1,6
Our hope. Psalm 33:20,22; 130:7, 1 Timothy 1:1; Romans 15:12
Purifies us. Psalm 51:10; Isaiah 1:18,25, Titus 2:14; 1 John 1:7
Raise the dead. Isaiah 26:9; Hosea 13:14; Job 3:13-17; 19:26-27, John 5:21; 11:38-44
Ransoms us. Jeremiah 31:11, Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Tim 2:6; Hebrews 9:15
Redeemer. Ps 130:7; Hosea 13:14; Isaiah 44:6, Galatians 4:5; Titus 2:13-14; Rev 5:9
Righteous One. Psalm 11:7; Isaiah 24:16, 1 John 2:1
Rock, Stone, Ps 1:2; 18:2,31 95:1; Isaiah 44:8, 1 Corinthians 10:4; 1 Peter 2:6-8
Ruler with a scepter/rod. Psalm 45:6, Revelation 19:15; Hebrews 1:8
Savior. Isaiah 43:4,11; Isaiah 45:21, Titus 1:3-4; 1 John 4:14,42; Acts 4:10
Shepherd. Ps 23:1; Isaiah 40:11, John 10:11; 1 Peter5:4; Hebrews 13:20
Sovereign and Lord. Genesis 15:2,8; Amos 1:8; Ob. 1, Jude 4
Sword-holder. Psalm 17:13, Revelation 19:15
Worthy of praise and honor. Psalm 18:3; 108:3-5, Revelation 5:13b; John 5:23
Sinlessness: 2 Corinthians 5:21 says that Jesus had no sin.
Hebrews 4:15 says, "For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are - yet was without sin."
1 Peter 1:18-19 "For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect."
Jesus even asked in John 8:46a, "Can any of you prove me guilty of sin?"
John 12:49 says, "For I [Jesus] did not speak of my own accord, but the Father who sent me commanded me what to say and how to say it."
Jesus successfully resisted temptation by Satan for forty days in the Wilderness in Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-13.
Suffering: Jesus was made perfect [as a sacrifice for us] through suffering (Hebrews 2:10). Jesus suffered when He was tempted in Hebrews 2:18. Hebrews 5:10; 9:26 also say that Jesus suffered.
Jesus ascended into Heaven, according to Luke 24:50-52, Acts 1:9-11
"Now, brothers, I want to remind you of the gospel I preached to you, which you received and on which you have taken your stand. By this gospel you are saved, if you hold firmly to the word I preached to you. Otherwise you have believed in vain. For what I received I passed on to you as for first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Peter, and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born." 1 Corinthians 15:1-8
"Just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." (Matthew 20:28)
"For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." (Mark 10:45)
"While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples saying, 'Take and eat; this is my body.' Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, 'Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.'" (Matthew 26:26-28) See also Luke 22:19-22)
"While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, 'Take it; this is my body.' Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, and they all drank from it. 'This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many,' he said to them. 'I tell you the truth, I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it anew in the kingdom of God.'" (Mark 14:22-25)
Jesus Would Be Betrayed
"Listen carefully to what I am about to tell you: The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men." (Luke 9:44)
""Jesus replied, 'The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me will betray me.'" (Matthew 26:23). See also Mark 14:18-21 and John 13:26.
"...Look, the hour is near, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise, let us go! Here comes my betrayer!" (Matthew 45b-46) See also Mark 14:41-42.
"Now the betrayer had arranged a signal with them: 'The one I kiss is the man; arrest him and lead him away under guard.'" (Mark 14:44)
"...Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?" (Luke 22:49)
See also John 13:18-19,21b.
Jesus on His Death and Resurrection
"As you know, the Passover is two days away - and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified." (Matthew 26:2)
"I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." (John 10:11) "I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me - just as the Father knows me and I know the Father - and I lay down my life for the sheep." (John 10:14-15)
"When she poured this perfume on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial." (Matthew 26:12)
Jesus also spoke parabolically about his death in Matthew 21:38-39 and Luke 20:14-15.
Jesus also spoke parabolically of His resurrection in Luke 16:31.
"But after I have risen, I will go ahead of you into Galilee." (Matthew 26:32; Mark 14:28)
"And he said, 'The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life." (Luke 9:22)
"From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life." (Matthew 16:21)
After the transfiguration, "As they were coming down the mountain, Jesus instructed them, 'Don't tell anyone what you have seen, until the Son of Man has been raised from the dead.'" (Matthew 17:9) See also Mark 9:9-10
"When they came together in Galilee, he [Jesus] said to them, 'The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men. They will kill him, and on the third day he will be raised to life.' And the disciples were filled with grief." (Matthew 17:22-23)
"...He said to them, 'The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men. They will kill him, and after three days he will rise.'" Mark 9:31)
"Now as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, he took the twelve disciples aside and said to them, 'We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life!'" (Matthew 20:17-19) See also Mark 10:33-34.
"Jesus took the Twelve aside and told them, 'We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. He will be handed over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him, spit on him, flog him, and kill him. On the third day he will rise again.'" (Luke 18:31-33)
"He [Jesus] said this to show the kind of death he was going to die." (John 12:33)
"...Why are you troubled, and why do doubts rise in your minds? Look at my hands and my feet. It is I myself! Touch me and see; a ghost does not have flesh and bones, as you see I have." (Luke 24:38-39)
"Then he [Jesus] opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. He told them, 'This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things." (Luke 24:45-48)
See also Jesus' words in Revelation 1:18. Angels also testified of Jesus' death and resurrection in Matthew 28:7; Luke 24:7 and Revelation 5:9,12.
Just as Jesus commanded God's followers to observe the Lord's Supper, 1 Corinthians 11:26 says that they observed this. "For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes."
The women observed where Jesus' body was laid in Luke 23:55.
Jesus is our ransom. 1 Timothy 2:6
John the Baptist (Yahya in Arabic) called Jesus the "lamb of God" John1:29. Peter did also in 1 Peter 1:19.
Jesus came to give abundant life (John 10:10), save sinners (1 Timothy 1:15), save the world (John 3:17), be a sin offering (Romans 8:3), reconcile. (Ephesians 2:13-18) thru His blood on the cross. (John 1:29; Hebrews 10:19)
testify to the truth Jn 18:37; atoning sacrifice 1 Jn 3:8;4:10
Jesus purifies us from all unrighteousness 1 John 1:9, saving completely, not just spiritually, by the sacrifice of His body and blood. Hebrews 7:25;10:14-20; Philippians 3:21; Romans 8:32
After completing His mission, Jesus ascended to heaven and is now at the right hand of God. Acts 2:33;7:55-6; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 1:13; 1 Peter 3:22; Psalm 110:1; Matthew 22:44;26:64
Christ tasted death for everyone (Hebrews 2:16).
Jesus is our Savior and ransom. 1 John 2:2; Hebrews 2:9;1; 9:15,28; 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 4:10
Never forget we were bought at a price, Jesus' blood. 1 Corinthians 6:20; 7:23; 2 Peter 2:1; Acts 20:28
Even the Old Testament prophets Isaiah and David prophesied of the death of the Messiah.
We know that Isaiah 53 refers to the Messiah because:
A person:The Messiah was a man or sorrows (53:3), with an appearance (52:2) and no children (53:8)
Take on others' sins as a guilt offering (53:10), took upon himself our infirmities and sorrows (53:4), suffered reproach as though struck by God (53:4) pierced and crushed for our sins (53:5).
Died and yet see his seed: assigned a grace with the wicked and the rich (53:9) yet we will see his offspring (53:10)
In contrast to this, the Jewish people never claimed to be a guilt offering (53:1), of that they interceded for the sins of others (53:12), or bore our infirmities and sorrows (53:4). The Jewish people would not say about themselves "The punishment that brought peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed." (53:5f)
We know that Psalm 22 refers to the Messiah because: This does not refer to David, for nobody pierced David's hands and feet. (It is also possible it could mean "lionlike", but even so, David's hands and feet were not bent over like lion's claws either.) David did not have his garments divided among them. David was not despised because it appeared God was not delivering him (22:6-8).
Since this psalm is not about things David personally experienced, to whom could it refer? It refers to someone who followed God from the womb (verse 9), yet who was despised as abandoned by God (verses 6-8), and asks "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?" (verse 1). It is someone who had their hands and feet pierced (verse 16), who was brought to the dust of death (verse 15). This sounds like the same suffering servant in Isaiah 53, and this refers to the Messiah.
Virgin birth: In the New Testament, Matthew 1:18-25 and Luke 1:27-2:21 are very clear that Mary was a virgin until Jesus was born. In the Old Testament, Isaiah 7:14 shows that the child called "God with us" would be born of a virgin.
Sinlessness: 2 Corinthians 5:21 says that Jesus had no sin.
Hebrews 4:15 says, "For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are - yet was without sin."
1 Peter 1:18-19 "For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect."
Jesus even asked in John 8:46a, "Can any of you prove me guilty of sin?"
John 12:49 says, "For I [Jesus] did not speak of my own accord, but the Father who sent me commanded me what to say and how to say it."
Jesus successfully resisted temptation by Satan for forty days in the Wilderness in Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-13.
Suffering: Jesus was made perfect [as a sacrifice for us] through suffering (Hebrews 2:10). Jesus suffered when He was tempted in Hebrews 2:18. Hebrews 5:10; 9:26 also say that Jesus suffered.
Jesus ascended into Heaven, according to Luke 24:50-52, Acts 1:9-11
There is a threeness in Scripture: Matthew 28:19 ("...baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit"); 1 Peter 1:2; Ephesians 2:18; Revelation 4:8; 2 Corinthians 13:14; John 15:26.
There is only One God. Deuteronomy 4:35-39; 6:4; ("Hear O Israel, the Lord your God is One") Isaiah 43: 10-2; 44:6,8; 45:5-6,14,21; 46:9; 1 Timothy 1:17;6:15-16.
Three distinct persons: Matthew 3:16-17; Luke 3:21-22 (at Jesus baptism the Father spoke and the Holy Spirit descended as a dove); John 1:1;6:38;14:31;15:26; 16:28; 17:5; Acts 5:31-32; Mark 10:38-40. Even simple things on earth, such as fingers on a hand, lobes of a cloverleaf, or peaks in a mountain range can be distinct and not separate. God can have distinct parts and still be inseparable too.
Jesus is God. John 1:3 ("In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God"); John 9:38 ("The man said, 'Lord I believe,' and he worshiped him.") Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:6-9; John 9:38; 2 Corinthians 11:3; John 20:28-29; Revelation 5:8-9;22:20
The Holy Spirit is God. 1 John 4:12-16 ("... God lives in us and his love is made complete in us. We know that we live in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit.") Romans 8:9-16; Luke 1:35; 1 John 4:12-16; 1 Corinthians 3:16 vs. 1 Corinthians 6:19; Acts 5:4
They are equal in nature, glory, and honor. John 5:18; 5:23 ("...all must honor the Son just as the honor the Father who sent Him"); Colossians 2:9-10; (Isaiah 44:6; Revelation 1:8 vs. Revelation 1:17-18; 22:13)
They differ in role and rank. Philippians 2:5b-6 "Christ Jesus: Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped [held onto] but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness." 1 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Corinthians 15:25-28; Matthew 12:18; Ephesians 1:3,17; John 1:33; 14:16,26,28; Romans 8:26-27. A common metaphor is that on earth a father and son are equal in value, the same nature, etc. However, the father has a different role in the family than a son.
Acts 4:12 "Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved."
Jesus said, "I am the light of the world" (John 8:12)
Paul in Ephesians 3:9-10 said his mission was "to make plain to everyone the administration of this mystery, which for ages past was kept hidden in God, who created all things. His intent was that now, through the church, the manifold wisdom of God should be made known..." (NIV)
Worship of others is expressly forbidden in the first of the Ten Commandments. "But I am afraid that just as Eve was deceived by the serpent's cunning, your minds may somehow be led astray from your sincere and pure devotion to Christ." (1 Corinthians 11:3 NIV)
"...Thus you nullify the word of God for the sake of your tradition. You hypocrites! Isaiah was right when he prophesied about you: These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. They worship me in vain; their teachings are but rules taught by men." (Jesus is speaking in Matthew 15:6-8 NIV)
"Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like that. Mark 7:13 NIV, Jesus is speaking.
"See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ." Colossians 2:8 NIV
Reincarnation: The Bible teaches reincarnation is wrong; Hebrews 9:27 says that man is destined to die once. In 2 Samuel 12:22-23 David said of his dead baby: "I will go to him [the grave] but he will not return to me." (NIV) Reincarnation does not make sense, since we all go to Heaven or Hell after death. Ecclesiastes 11:3 also shows that "wherever a tree falls, there it will lie."
Astrology, trusting heavenly bodies for advice about the future is wrong according to the Bible in Leviticus 19:26; 22:27; Deuteronomy 18:11-14; 2 Kings 17:16; 21:3,5; 2 Chronicles 33:3-6.
Women: In the Bible men and woman have different roles. However, in regard to value, Galatians 3:28 shows that there is neither male nor female in Christ Jesus; all believers have the privilege of being children of God.
Wine: The Old Testament shows that drinking wine is acceptable, but Ephesians 5:18 commands us not to be drunk. 'Alawites drink wine, but I have no evidence that they believe in getting drunk either.
We were created for God's glory (Isaiah 43:7; 62:3) to proclaim His praise (Isaiah 43:21) as His witnesses (Isaiah 43:10)
God loves us and delights in us (Zephaniah 3:17)
As a Father loves His children (Malachi 1:6; 1 John 3:1), God cares for us. (Psalm 8:4; Nahum 1:7; 1 Peter 5:7)
God wants us to live with Him forever (Revelation 21:3; 2 Corinthians 5:4)
Our joy (Philippians 3:1) and light will be God (Revelation 21:23-25; John 1:5,7-9) which is better than looking forward to wine (Psalm 4:7)
We are created in Christ Jesus to do works (Ephesians 2:10)
There is one way, God's way: Though we have all turned aside from God and followed our pet deceptions, God was not through with us. While we were still God's enemies, God sent His son Jesus Christ to die for us, as Romans 5:10-11 shows. Mere prophets came to teach; Jesus not only taught like other prophets, He came to die to our sins (John 1:29; 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 John 2:2). Jesus said in John 14:6 "I am the way and the truth and the life. None comes to the Father except through me."
We must seek God: Jesus told us we had to seek Him in Matthew 7:7-12. Mt 7:14 adds, "Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it. But small is the gate and narrow the road that lead to life, and only a few find it."
We must confess Jesus as Lord: "if you confess with your mouth, 'Jesus is Lord,' and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved. As the Scripture says, 'Any-one who trust in him will never be put to shame.' For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile - the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, for, 'Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.'" (Rom 10:9-13)
"O LORD, our Lord, how majestic is your name in all the earth!" (Psalm 8:1 David is speaking)
"I said LORD you are my Lord; apart from you I have no good thing," Psalm 16:2
"Remain in me, and I will remain in you. No branch can bear fruit by itself; it must remain in the vine. Neither can you bear fruit unless you remain in me. I am the vine; you are the branches. If a man remains in me and I in him, he will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing." (Jesus in John 15:1:4-6)
"Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than ourselves. Each of you should look not only to your own interests, but also to the interests of others. Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus. Philippians 2:3-5a
"I am afraid that just as Eve was deceived by the serpent's cunning, your minds may somehow be led astray from your sincere and pure devotion to Christ. For if someone comes to you and preaches a Jesus other than the Jesus we preached, or if you receive a different spirit from the one you received, or a different gospel from the one you accepted, you put up with it easily enough." (2 Corinthians 11:3-4)
"I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting the one who called you by the grace of Christ and are turning to a different gospel - which is really no gospel at all. Evidently some people are throwing you into confusion and are trying to pervert the gospel of Christ. But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let him be eternally condemned! As we have already said, so now I say again: If anybody is preaching to you a gospel other than what you accepted, let him be eternally condemned!" (Galatians 1:8-9)
God loves the world (not just some) (John 3:16) and is the One God and Father of all (Eph. 3:14;4:16). He wants us to love each other (1 John 4:19-20).
People with hatred of others do not know God. 1 John 3:10,15, 4:19-21. We are to help the oppressed. Proverbs 24:11-12; 29:7; 31:9; Isaiah 1:17; Jer 22:16; Ps 41:1)
As for interracial marriage, Moses married a black (Cushite) lady in Numbers 12. God did not rebuke Moses, but rebuked Miriam, who criticized Moses' marriage. (Christians are to only marry Christians though, as 2 Cor. 6:14-18 and 1 Cor. 7:39 say).
For all, regardless of race or color, there is:
No other god. Exodus 20:3; 1 Timothy 1:17
No other Savior but Jesus. Ac4:12;Php2:10-11
No other way but Jesus. John 14:6; 1Tim 4:10
We must love others as ourselves. Mark 12:31
"Jesus is the same yesterday, today, and forever." Hebrews 13:8
"And on her forehead a name was written: MYSTERY, BABYLON the GREAT, The MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. And when I saw her, I marveled with great amazement." Revelation 17:5-6 (NKJV)
Revelation 22 tells of the River of Life that people would drink and the tree of life with twelve crops of fruit.
First Clement, of Rome 96/98 A.D. (Greek)
"our Lord Jesus Christ" 1 Clement ch.1 p.5
"the elect of God" 1 Clement ch.1 p.5
"more willing to give than to receive." [Quotes Acts 20:35f] 1 Clement ch.2 p.5
"that the number of God's elect might be saved" 1 Clement ch.2 p.5
Outpouring of the Holy Spirit. 1 Clement ch.2 p.5
Referred to Titus 3:1b "ready to do every good work" [Level 5] 1 Clement ch.2 p.5
Involuntary transgression. 1 Clement ch.2 p.5
"ye did all things in the fear of God." 1 Clement ch.3
"...and then was fulfilled that which is written, 'My beloved did eat and drink, and was enlarged and became fat, and kicked,'" [Deuteronomy 32:15] 1 Clement ch.3 p.5
Cain killed Abel out of envy and jealousy. 1 Clement ch.4 p.6
Peter was a martyr. 1 Clement ch.5 p.6
Paul was imprisoned seven times and was stoned. 1 Clement ch.5 p.6
Divorce changes the saying of our Father Adam, This is now bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh. 1 Clement ch.6 p.6
"Wherefore let us give up vain and fruitless cares, and approach to the glorious and venerable rule of our holy calling. Let us attend to what is good, pleasing, and acceptable in the sight of Him who formed us." 1 Clement ch.7 p.7
"how precious that blood [of Jesus] is to God, which, having been shed for our salvation, has set the grace of repentance before the whole world." 1 Clement ch.7 p.7
"Let us turn to every age that has passed, and learn that, from generation to generation, the Lord has granted a place of repentance to all such as would be converted unto Him" 1 Clement ch.7 p.7
Noah preached repentance. 1 Clement ch.7 p.7
Jonah proclaimed destruction to the Ninevites, but they repented. 1 Clement ch.7 p.7
1 Clement (96/98 A.D.) ch.8 p.7 "Wherefore let us yield obedience to His excellent and glorious will;"
Abraham was told to leave his country. 1 Clement ch.10 p.7
On account of Abraham's obedience, faith, and hospitality, a son was given to him in his old age. 1 Clement ch.10 p.7
Abraham offered as a sacrifice his son in his old age. 1 Clement ch.10 p.7-8
Lot and Lot's wife. 1 Clement ch.11 p.8
Rahab the harlot had faith and hospitality. 1 Clement ch.12 p.8
Rahab's scarlet thread represents the redemption through the blood of the Lord. 1 Clement ch.12 p.8
"Let us be kind one to another after the pattern of the tender mercy and benignity of our Creator." It goes on to say we should be kind-hearted and peaceful. 1 Clement (96/98 A.D.) ch.14 p.8
"Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Sceptre of the majesty of God, did not come in the pomp of pride or arrogance," 1 Clement ch.16 p.9
Clement quotes all of Isaiah 53 (Septuagint version) as prophesying Christ. 1 Clement chapter 16 p.9
"for it the Lord thus humbled Himself, what shall we do who have through Him come under the yoke of His grace." 1 Clement ch.16 p.9
Mention of Job and quote from Job 1:1. 1 Clement ch.17 p.9
Abraham was the friend of God. 1 Clement ch.17 p.9; ch.10 p.7
David was a man after God's own heart. 1 Clement ch.18 p.10
Clement of Rome quotes Psalm 51:1-17 saying David said this to God. 1 Clement ch.18 p.10
"Let us look stedfastly to the Father and Creator of the Universe, and cleave to His mighty and surpassingly great gifts and benefactions of peace." 1 Clement ch.19 p.10
Predestination: "Let us contemplate Him [The Father] with our understanding, and look with eyes of our soul to His long-suffering will Let us reflect how free from wrath He is towards all His creation." 1 Clement ch.19 p.10
Sovereignty: "The whole universe is under God." 1 Clement ch.20 p.10
He does good to all. 1 Clement ch.20 p.11
"...through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory and majesty for ever and ever." 1 Clement ch.20 p.11
Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "the Holy Ghost thus addresses us: Come, ye children, hearken unto Me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord" 1 Clement ch.22 p.11
"It is right, therefore, that we should not leave the post which His will has assigned us. Let us rather offend those men who are foolish, and inconsiderate, and lifted up, and who glory in the pride of their speech, than [offend] God. Let us reverence the Lord Jesus Christ, whose blood was given for us..." 1 Clement ch.21 p.11
Let us honor the aged among us; let us train up the young men in the fear of God; let us direct our wives to that which is good." 1 Clement ch.21 p.11
Women: "...let us direct our wives to that which is good. Let them exhibit the lovely habit of purity [in all their conduct]; let them show forth the sincere disposition of meekness; let them make manifest the command which they have of their tongue, by their manner of speaking; let them display their love, not by preferring one to another, but by showing equal affect to all that piously fear God." 1 Clement ch.21 p.11
"Let your children be partakes of true Christian training: let them learn of how great avail humility is with God" 1 Clement ch.21 p.11
"For He is a Searcher of the thoughts and desires [or the heart]; His breath is in us; and when He pleases, He will take it away." 1 Clement ch.21 p.11
"The all-merciful and beneficent Father..." 1 Clement ch.23 p.11
Clement speaks of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. 1 Clement ch.24 p.11-12
"Let us consider, beloved, how the Lord continually proves to us that there shall be a future resurrection, of which He has rendered the Lord Jesus Christ the first-fruits by raising Him from the dead." 1 Clement ch.24 p.11
Clement gives an analogy of the resurrection of the phoenix bird exactly every 500 years. 1 Clement ch.25 p.12
Clement speaks of our resurrection. 1 Clement ch.26,27 p.12
Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "He who has commanded us not to lie, shall much more Himself not lie; for nothing is impossible with God, except to lie." [Hebrews 6:18] 1 Clement ch.27 p.12 [Actually two other things Scriptures says are impossible with God too: to deny Himself and to be tempted.]
We must forsake those wicked words which proceed from evil desires; so that, through His mercy, we may be protected from the judgments to come" 1 Clement ch.28 p.12
Justified all men: "...being called by His will in Christ Jesus, are not justified by ourselves, nor by our own wisdom, or understanding, or godliness, or works which we have wrought in holiness of heart; but by that faith through which, from the beginning, Almighty God has justified all men; to whom be glory for ever and ever." 1 Clement ch.32 p.13.
Be prompt in the practice of well-doing. 1 Clement ch.34 p.14
Creator and Father of all worlds. 1 Clement ch.34 p.14
Son of God: "But concerning His Son the Lord spoke thus: Thou are my Son, to-day have I begotten Thee." Clement quotes Hebrews 1:5, 7, 13 as well as more of Psalm 2. 1 Clement ch.36 p.15
Metaphor of the unity of Christ and parts of the human body. 1 Clement ch.37 p.15
Pharaoh's heart was hardened. 1 Clement ch.37 p.19
1 Clement (96/98 A.D.) mentions the office of the episcopate, bishops, deacons, that we should obey bishops and presbyters ch.42 p.16; ch.47 p.18, ch.57 p.20
Own supreme will. 1 Clement ch.37 p.16
Aaron's rod that budded. 1 Clement ch.43 p.16
1 Clement (96/98 A.D.) ch.43 p.16 and ch.46 p.17 show that as we follow Christ, as soldiers follow a general, we are to obey our church leaders. (also vol.9 ch.43 p.242 and ch.57 p.246)
Clement believed in Episcopal succession. In other words, one way we know that the Christian church is correct vs. other groups, is that the apostles appointed bishops who appointed bishops, etc. 1 Clement ch.44 p.17
Only the wicked persecute the righteous. 1 Clement ch.45 p.17
A body does not tear up itself. Likewise the body of Christ should not hurt itself. 1 Clement ch.46 p.17
Mention of the elect. 1 Clement ch.46 p.17
Clement mentions Paul writing to the Corinthians. 1 Clement ch.47 p.18
By love have all the elect of God been made perfect; without love nothing is well-pleasing to God. 1 Clement ch.49 p.18
"On account of the Love he bore us, Jesus Christ our Lord gave His blood for us by the will of God; His flesh for our flesh, and His soul for our souls." 1 Clement ch.49 p.18
After life is resurrection. 1 Clement ch.50 p.18
Chosen by God through Jesus Christ our Lord 1 Clement ch.50 p.19
The elect David. 1 Clement ch.52 p.19
Clement not only warns against divisive leaders, but he also advises how the leaders of sedition can be reconciled back to the body. 1 Clement ch.54 p.19
Judith in the apocrypha 1 Clement ch.55 vol.1 p.20; vol.9 p.245
1 Clement (96/98 A.D.) "Thou shalt know also that thy seed shall be great, and thy children like the grass of the field." ch.56 p.20.
Elect: 3 times
Emulation [bad]: 2 times
Envy: 23 times
Fear of God / the Lord: 5 times
Grace: 3 times
Honor/honorable/noble: 8 times
Hospitality: 4 times
Jealousy: 2 times
Love/Loved: 3 times
Merciful/mercy: 8 times
Obedient/obedience: 9 times
Peaceful/peaceable/ peace: 12 times
Pride: 4 times
Repent/repentance: 8 times
Sedition: 5 times
Self-confident: 1 time
Strife: 3 times
Letter to Diognetus c.130 A.D. (Greek)
The author, called Mathetes (means disciple) today, was a disciple of the apostles.
"Come, then after you have freed [or purified] yourself from all prejudices possessing your mind" Letter to Diognetus ch.2 p.25
The author wrote that idols are deaf, blind, without life, and destitute of feeling. Letter to Diognetus ch.2 p.25
The human will is endowed with sense and reason. Letter to Diognetus ch.2 p.25-26
To Diognetus (130 A.D.) ch.3 p.26 "For He that made haven and earth, and all that is therein..." also ch.8 p.28
The anonymous author, called Mathetes, was too critical of Old Testament practices, painting the practices of the Pharisees and the Old Testament with the same brush. Letter to Diognetus ch.3,4 p.26
Christians do not commit abortion [literally "casting away fetuses"] or infanticide. Letter to Diognetus ch.5 p.26
Christians are citizens of Heaven. Letter to Diognetus ch.5 p.27
Christians love all men. Letter to Diognetus ch.5,7 p.27
What the soul is to the body Christians are to this world. Letter to Diognetus ch.7 p.27
Alludes to John 17:11,14,16, saying "Christians dwell in the world, yet are not of the world." (ch.6 p.27)The Father is King and God. He sent His son, who is also King and God. Letter to Diognetus ch.7 p.27
To Diognetus ch.5 p.27 (c.130 A.D.) says Christians love all men. They are poor, yet make many rich; they are reviled, and bless, they are insulted, and repay the insult with honor.
Christ sent as King, God, man, and savior. Letter to Diognetus ch.7 p.27
"as a Savior He sent Him, and as seeking to persuade, not to compel us; for violence has no place in the character of God." Letter to Diognetus ch.7 p.27
Creator of all things. Letter to Diognetus ch.7 p.27
Mention of "His Son, according to the relation/economy subsisting between them." Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28
He criticizes vain and silly human philosophy. Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28
God is the fashioner of all things. Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28
God is free from wrath. Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28
God's grace. Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28
"He [God] gave his own Son as a ransom for us..." Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28 (c.130 A.D.)
The Son is a ransom for us, - sweet exchange. Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28
"He who, being from everlasting, is to-day called/esteemed the Son" Letter to Diognetus ch.11 p.29
God is a Father. Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28; ch.10 p.29; ch12 p.30
Men should be imitators of God. Letter to Diognetus ch.10 p.29
The author was a disciple of the apostles. Letter to Diognetus ch.11 p.29
Jesus is the Word. Letter to Diognetus ch.11 p.29
"...the faith of the gospels is established, and the tradition of the Apostles is preserved..." To Diognetus (c.130 A.D.) ch.11 p.29
Jesus is born of afresh in the hearts of saints. Letter to Diognetus ch.11 p.27
The author explains the reason Jesus came as late as he did. It was not that God approved of the sin of prior times, but God with long-suffering waited so that wickedness "had been clearly shows that its reward, punishment and death, was impending over us" Letter to Diognetus ch.9 p.28
"He [God] gave His own Son as a ransom for us, the holy One for transgressors, the blameless One for the wicked...." Letter to Diognetus ch.9 p.28
" I do not speak of things strange to me, nor do I aim at anything inconsistent with right reason; but having been a disciple of the Apostles, I am become a teacher of the Gentiles. Letter to Diognetus ch.11 p.29
The Son, through whom the Church is enriched, and grace, widely spread, increases in the saints, furnishing understanding, revealing, mysteries,... Letter to Diognetus ch.11 p.29
The tradition of the apostles is preserved. Letter to Diognetus ch.11 p.29
The Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life planted in Paradise. Letter to Diognetus ch.12 p.29-30
Quotes 1 Corinthians 8:1 as written by the Apostle. Letter to Diognetus ch.12 p.30
Reference to the Fatherhood of God. Letter to Diognetus ch.10 p.29; ch.12 p.30
Stats: Word 5 times; Son: 8 times
Polycarp to the Philippians 100-155 A.D.
Polycarp was a disciple of John the Apostle, and bishop of Smyrna from 100-150/155 A.D.
"...Lord Jesus Christ, who for our sins suffered even unto death, [but] 'whom God raised from the dead, having loosed the bands of the grave.'" Letter from Polycarp to the Philippians ch.1 p.33 (Polycarp was martyred c.155 A.D.)
"chains are the fitting ornaments of saints, and which are indeed the diadems of the true elect of God and our Lord" Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.1 p.33
Christ suffered for our sins suffered even unto death. Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.1 p.33
God raised Jesus from the grave. Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.1 p.33; ch.2 p.33
Eph 2:8-9 "by grace ye are saved, not of works" Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.1 p.33
"But He who raised Him up from the dead will raise up us also, if we do His will, and walk in His commandments, and love what He loved, keeping ourselves from all unrighteousness..." Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.2 p.33
"For neither I, not any other such one, can come up to the wisdom of the blessed and glorified Paul. He, when among you, accurately and stedfastly taught the word of truth in the presence of those who were then alive. And when absent from you [Philippians] he wrote you a letter, which, if you carefully study, you will find to be the means of building you up in that faith..." Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.3 p.33.
"For if anyone be inwardly possessed of grace has fulfilled the command of righteousness, since he that hath love is far from all sin." Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians ch.3 p.33-34
Polycarp (100-165 A.D.) "being subject to the presbyters and deacons, as unto God and Christ." Letter to the Philippians ch.5 p.34
"In like manner, let the young men also be blameless in all things, being especially careful to preserve purity, and keeping themselves in, as with a bridle, from every kind of evil. For it is well that they should be cut off from the lusts that are in the world, since 'every lust warreth against the spirit;' and 'neither fornicators, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, shall inherit the kingdom of God,' nor those who do things inconsistent and unbecoming." (quotes 1 Corinthians 6:9) Letter of Polycarp ch.4 p.34
Polycarp (100-165 A.D.) "For whosoever does not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh, is antichrist" (quote of 1 John 4:3) Letter to the Philippians ch.7 p.34
"and whosoever does not confess the testimony of the cross, is of the devil;" Letter of Polycarp ch.7 p.34
"God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ Himself, who is the Son of God,..." The Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians chapter 12 p.35
Polycarp in his Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.12 p.36 "Pray for all the saints. Pray also for kings, and potentates, and princes, and for those that persecute and hate you, and for the enemies of the cross, that your fruit may be manifest to all, and that ye may be perfect in Him."
Polycarp talked of persecutors as "enemies of the cross." (12:3) as Philippians 3:18 does.
The Apology of Aristides - 125 A.D.
God is without beginning and ending, immortal, self-sufficing, above all passion and infirmities, above anger, forgetfulness, and ignorance of the rest. The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.263-264
"Through Him [God] all things consist." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.264
"And the [the Chaldeans] shut them [ idols] up together in shrines, and worship them, calling them gods, even though they have to guard them securely for fear they should be stolen by robbers.... For if their gods are unfit to look after their own safety, how shall they bestow protection upon others?" The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.265
God, who is indestructible and immutable and invisible; yet He sees all things and as He wills, modifies and changes things." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.266
Aristides mentions that Greek gods did many wicked and demeaning things. Jupiter changed into various animals to debauch mortal women. The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.270
"For if there had been a unity of nature among the gods, then one god ought not to have pursued or slain or injured another. And if the gods were pursued by gods, and slain, and kidnapped and struck with lightning by them, then there is no longer any unity of nature, but divided counsels, all mischievous. So that not one of them is a god. It is clear then, O King, that all their discourse on the nature of the gods is an error." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.274-25.
Homosexuality: Aristides mentions unrighteous things the gods did, such as slaying one another, practicing sorceries, adultery, thefts, and intercourse with males. The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.275
Aristides mentions the "Son of God" who was put to death by Pilate. The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.276
Aristides (125 A.D.) teaches on one God Almighty. The Apology of Aristides p.276
The Holy Spirit acknowledged Jesus to be the Son of the Most High God. The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.276
Jesus was born of the virgin. He assumed flesh and revealed himself among men. The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.276
"He [Jesus] tasted death on the cross, ... And after three days He came to life again and ascended into heaven.". The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.276
"For they know of God, the Creator and Fashioner of all things through the only-begotten Son and the Holy Spirit; and beside Him they worship no other God." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.277
"...looking forward to the resurrection of the dead and life in the world to come." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.277
They [Christians] do not commit adultery nor fornication, nor bear false witness, nor cover the things of others; they honour father and mother, and love their neighbours; they judge justly, and they would never do to others what they would not wish to happen to themselves." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.277
"they [Christians] appeal to those who injure them, and try to win them as friends; they are eager to do good to their enemies; they are gentle and easy to be entreated." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.277
"they [Christians] abstain from all unlawful conversation and from all impurity; they despise not the widow, nor oppress the orphan; and he that has, gives ungrudgingly for the maintenance of him who has not." The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.277
"And they are ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of Christ;" The Apology of Aristides (125 A.D.) p.277
Martyrdom of Polycarp - c.169 A.D.
Eusebius mentions this in his Ecclesiastical History 4:15. (p.38)
"God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ" Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp 1st sentence p.39
References to God the Father. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp 1st sentence p.39; ch.14 p.42; ch.19 p.43; ch.22 p.43
Reference to the Lord Jesus Christ. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp 1st sentence p.39
Absent from the body is communing with the Lord. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.2 p.39
Christians are called a race. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.3 p.40
Prophecy that Polycarp must be burned alive. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.4 p.40
Polycarp would not reproach Christ. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.9 p.41
Polycarp would not pretend not to know who and what he was. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.10 p.41
Government: Christians should respect the authorities. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.10 p.41,42
"86 years have I served Him and He never did me any injury: how then can I blaspheme my King and my Savior?" Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.9 p.41
"You threaten me with fire that can burn for an hour, and after a little while is extinguished, but are ignorant of the fire of the coming judgment and of eternal punishment, reserved for the ungodly." Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.11 p.41
Both Jews and pagans were eager to kill Polycarp. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.13,17,18 p.42
Reference to the Fatherhood of God. Polycarp prayed, "O Lord God Almighty, the Father of thy beloved and blessed Son Jesus Christ, by whom we have received the knowledge of Thee, ... I give Thee thanks that Thou hast counted me worthy of this day and this hour, that I should have a part in the number of they martyrs, in the cup of Christ, to the resurrection of eternal life, both of soul and body, through the incorruption [imparted] by the Holy Ghost." Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.14 p.42.
Son of God: "...through His only-begotten Son Jesus Christ, to Him to glory, and honour, and power, and majesty for ever. Amen." "God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ" Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.20 p.43
Doctrine of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Chain of transmission: Caius transcribed from Irenaeus, who was a disciple of Polycarp. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.22 p.43
References to the elect. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.22 p.43 (2 times)
Chain of transmission: Pionius from Socrates, from Caius transcribed from Irenaeus, who was a disciple of Polycarp. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.22 p.43
Ignatius - died 107/116 A.D.
Ignatius died December 20th, 107 A.D.. The only people who give a different date (116 A.D.) do so because they deny two expeditions of Trajan against the Parthians. (vol.1 p.48)
Ignatius was a martyr, being thrown before wild animals in Rome, according to Polycarp's Letter (9:2), Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History 3:36:3, Origen's Homilies in Luke 6
Ignatius was a Gentile, the Latin form of his name was Egnatius. He had seven authentic letters. Longer recensions, and five additional letters, are spurious. It says he died c. 110 A.D. (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1972 vol.11 p.1070)
"Therefore in your concord and harmonious love, Jesus Christ is sung. And do ye, man by man, become a choir, that being harmonious in love, and taking up the song of God in unison, ye may with one voice sing to the Father through Jesus Christ, so that He may both hear you, and perceive by your works that ye are indeed the members of His Son." Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.4 p.50-51
Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.11 p.54 (-107/116 A.D.) "Only let us be found in Christ Jesus unto the true life. Apart form Him, let nothing attract you, for whom I bear about these bonds, these spiritual jewels, ..."
Ignatius wrote frequently of Christ as God. For example, he wrote of "the blood of God" in chapter 1 of his Letter to the Ephesians p.49
Fatherhood Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians Intro p.49; ch.21 p.58
Predestined before the beginning. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians Intro p.49
The Elect Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians Intro p.49
Father Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.2 p.30; ch.3 p.50; ch.4 p.51; ch.5 p.51; ch.9 p.53
Ignatius mentions Bishop Onesimus of Ephesus. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.1 p.49
Be subject to the bishop and the presbytery. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.2 p.50
Do not set yourselves up in opposition to the bishop, in order that we may be subject to God. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.5 p.51
Look upon your bishop as you would the Lord himself. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.6 p.51-52
Some carry Christ's name in wicked guile. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.7 p.52
Ignatius talks of Christ as God Incarnate. He goes on to say that Jesus was "sprung from Mary as well as God first subject to suffering then beyond it" Ephesians 7 p.52
"Like stones of God's Temple ready for a building of God the Father, you are being hoisted up by Jesus Christ, as with a crane (that's the cross!), while the rope you use is the Holy Spirit. Your faith is what lifts you up while love is the way you ascend to God." (Letter to the Ephesians 9:1, parenthesis in the original English translation)
Ignatius to the Ephesians (-107/116 A.D.) ch.10 p.53 "And pray ye without ceasing in behalf of other men."
Pray without ceasing on behalf of other men. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.10 p.53
Mention of the Christians of Ephesus. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.11 p.54
We are objects of mercy. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.12 p.54-55
"nor that he that possesses love hate anyone. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.19 p.55
Paul wrote a letter to the Ephesians. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.12 p.55
Those who corrupt by wicked doctrine shall go away into everlasting fire. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.16 p.56
The cross is a stumbling block to those who do not believe, but to us it is salvation and life eternal. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.18 p.56-57
"For our God, Jesus Christ, was, according to the appointment of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.18 p.57
Virgin Mary. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.19 p.57
"God Himself being manifested in human form for the renewal of eternal life." Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.19 p.57
"Jesus Christ, ... in His suffering and in His resurrection." Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.20 p.57
"Jesus Christ... being both the Son of man and the Son of God" Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.20 p.58
Obey the bishop and Presbytery. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.20,21 p.58
Mention of the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.3 p.60 (2 times) ch.5 p.61; ch.6 p.61; ch.7 p.62 (2 times)
Enjoy God. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.1 p.59
Be subject to the Bishop. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.2 p.59,60
God knows all his servants. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.3 p.60
We are not just to be called Christians but called to be Christians (Ignatius to the Magnesians ch.4 p.61)
Do not call your bishop (pastor today) a bishop and then do everything in disregard to him. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.4 p.61
There are two kinds of coinage, God's and Satan's. What kind of treasure are you trying to store up? Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.5 p.61
Jesus Christ was with the Father before the beginning of time [before the ages] Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.6 p.61
Let nothing exist among you that may divide you. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.6 p.61
Jesus Christ who came forth from One Father while still remaining one with Him and returned to him. (Ignatius to the Magnesians ch.7 p.62)
If we still live according to the old Jewish law, we have not received grace. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.8 p.62
Ignatius died either 107 or 116 A.D.. "His grace to fully convince the unbelieving that there is one God, who has manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His eternal Word,..." Letter of Ignatius Letter to the Magnesians ch.8 p.62
No longer observe the Sabbath but instead the Lord's Day. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.9 p.62
Jesus was raised from the dead. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.9 p.62
For were He to reward us according to our works, we should cease to be. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.10 p.63
Mention of Christianity. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.10 p.63
Jesus was under the time of the government of Pontius Pilate. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.11 p.64
Jesus' birth, passion, and resurrection. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.11 p.64
Christ is our hope. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.11 p.64
Quotes Proverbs 18:17 (Septuagint). The righteous man is his own accuser. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.12 p.64
Son and in the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.13 p.64
"Be ye subject to the bishop, and to one another, as Jesus Christ to the Father." Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.13 p.64
We should refresh other Christians. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.14 p.65
Ignatius was friends with Polycarp, bishop of the Smyrneans. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.15 p.65
Quote of Mt 16:26 Ignatius's Letter to the Romans ch.6 p.77
Partial quote of Eph 5:2 in Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.1 p.49
Paul wrote a letter to the Ephesians according to Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.12 p.55
Jerome says that Ignatius had a quote from the Gospel to the Nazarenes in Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrnaeans ch.3 p.87. The quote is "Lay hold, handle Me, and see that I am not an incorporeal spirit."
Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.1 p.79 (-107/116 A.D.) "For he in harmony with the commandments [of God], even as he harp is with its strings."
Ignatius positively mentions Polycarp. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp. p.96
The presbyters are as the Sanhedrin of God. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.3 p.67
Jesus Christ is the Son of the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.3 p.67
Ignatius did not consider himself on par with the apostles. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.3 p.67
"I therefore have need of meekness, by which the prince of this world is brought to nought." Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.4 p.67
Ignatius discussed his feelings about suffering for Christ and his need for meekness. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.4 p.67.
Some mix up Jesus Christ with their own poison, like a deadly drug in sweet wine. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.6 p.67
Use Christian nourishment only and not other herbages: heresy. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.6 p.68
Continue in intimate union with Jesus Christ our God. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.8 p.68
Blood of Jesus Christ. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.8 p.69
"by Christ Jesus, apart from whom we do not possess the true life." Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.9 p.70
Jesus was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, truly crucified, died, and raised from the dead. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.9 p.70
Ignatius explicitly denies that the Christ only seemed to suffer. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.10 p.70
Mention of the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.9 p.70; ch.12 p.72; ch.13 p.72
If these men [evil offshoots of Satan] were plantings of the Father, they would appear as branches of the cross. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.11 p.71
Ignatius mentions the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans Intro p.73 (3 times) ch.2 p.74; ch.3 p.74; ch.7 p.79
Jesus Christ our God. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans Intro p.73
Our God, Jesus Christ. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans ch.3 p.74
Christianity. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans ch.3 p.75
Peter and Paul were apostles, and Ignatius explicitly says he himself was not one. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans ch.4 p.73
Do not let envy find a dwelling place among you. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans ch.7 p.76
Come to the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans ch.7 p.77
Ignatius mentions the blood of Jesus Christ. Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians intro p.79
Mention of the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians ch.1 p.79 ch.3 p.80
Lord's Supper: One flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, one cup to the unity of His blood, and one bishop, along with the elders. Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians ch.4 p.81
Let us also love the prophets, because they too have proclaimed the Gospel, and placed their hope in Him, and waited for him; in whom also believing, they were saved, through union to Jesus Christ...and being reckoned along with [us] in the Gospel of the common hope. Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians ch.5 p.82
Flee the wicked devices and snares of the prince of this world. Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians ch.6 p.82-83
Mention of Jesus resurrection. Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians ch.8 p.84
Jesus is the door of the Father, by which enter in Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, the prophets, the apostles, and the church. Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians ch.9 p.84
"Heartiest greetings in all sincerity and in God's Word from Ignatius, the "God-inspired," to the church of God the Father and the beloved Jesus Christ, which is at Smyrna in Asia. ... I extol Jesus Christ, the God who has granted you such wisdom. For I detected that you were fitted out with an unshakable faith, being nailed, as it were, body and soul to the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ, and being rooted in love by the blood of Christ." (Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.1 p.86)
Those who claim Christ only seemed to suffer, will be divested of their bodes and be mere evil spirits. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.2 p.87
After Jesus' resurrection He still had flesh, and Ignatius believes even so now. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.3 p.87
Shun false believers. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.4 p.87-88; ch.7 p.89
"Only you must pray for them, if by any means they may be brought back to repentance." Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.4 p.88
All that do not bathe in the blood of Christ shall, in consequence incur condemnation. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.6 p.88-89
Consubstantiation: The Eucharist is the flesh of the son. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.7 p.89
Make sure you follow your bishop even as Jesus does the Father. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.8 p.89
Mention of the brothers at Troas (Troy) Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.12 p.91
Christ's passion and resurrection in flesh and blood. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.12 p.92
Be strong in the Holy Spirit. Conclusion. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.92
In over 17 places Ignatius writes of "Christ our God"
Find time to pray without ceasing. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.1 p.93
Every wound is not healed with the same plaster [remedy]. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.2 p.93
The times demand you as a [ship's] pilot the heavens [stars]. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.2 p.94
The crown is immortality.
Stand like a beaten anvil. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.3 p.94
It is the part of a good athlete to be wounded [bruised] and yet to conquer. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.3 p.94
On the Lord's second coming: "Look for Him that is above the times, Him who has no times, Him who is invisible, Him who for our sakes became visible, Him who is impalpable [beyond touch], Him who is impassable [beyond passion], Him who for our sakes suffered, Him who endured everything in every form for our sakes." So Ignatius understood that God the Son was the visible, temporal appearance of the invisible, timeless God the Father. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.3 p.94
Ignatius loosely quotes Matthew 10:16b, "Be wise as a serpent and harmless as a dove." Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.2 p.94
Do not neglect widows. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.4 p.94
Assemble together frequently. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.4 p.94
Do not despise male or female slaves. "Let them not long to be set free [from slavery] at the public expense, that they be not found slaves to their own desires. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.4 p.94-95
Sisters should be satisfied with their husbands, both in the flesh and spirit. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.5 p.93
Quotes Eph 5:25a: Husbands should love their wives even as Christ loved the church. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.5 p.93
Men and women should marry with the approval of the bishop. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.5 p.95
Give heed to the bishop, presbyters, and deacons. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.6 p.95
Please the one you fight for, and from whom you receive your wages. Do not be found a deserter. Let your baptism be your arms, your faith your helmet, your love your spear, and your patience your complete panoply. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.6 p.95
Your works should be the charge assigned to you, and you may receive a worthy recompense. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.6 p.95
Ignatius told Polycarp to assemble a very solemn council in Antioch. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.7 p.96
A Christian is not his own master but waits upon God. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.7 p.96
Women: Ignatius saluted the wife of Epitropus, with all her house and children. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.8 p.96
Some letter of Ignatius are only in Syriac, and are suspect. They area the Second Letter of Ignatius to Polycarp, and the Second and Third Letters of Ignatius to the Ephesians. There are some known fake epistles claimed to be by Ignatius. They are The Letter of Ignatius to the Tarsians, The Letter of Ignatius to the Antiochians, The Letter of Ignatius to Hero, The Letter of Ignatius to the Philippians, the Letter of Maria the Proselyte to Ignatius, the Letter of Ignatius to Mary at Neapolis, Near Zarbus, The First and Second Letters of Ignatius to St. John the Apostle, the and the Letter of Ignatius to the Virgin Mary.
Eusebius and Jerome both list the letters of Eusebius, and they only list the seven. The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.1 p.47 also mentions that the longer versions appeared to support a kind of Arianism. As an example, the shorter versions says "the blood of God" while the longer version does not.
People disagree on the genuineness of the Martyrdom of Ignatius. Against its genuineness is the fact that it was not mentioned by other writers until about 600 A.D. For its genuineness is that its account is in harmony with what Eusebius and Chrysostom said. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.1 p.127
After the Roman Emperor Trajan defeated the Scythians and Dacians, and many other nations, threatened the Christians "unless they should agree to worship daemons". Trajan was on his way to fight the Armenians and Parthians. The Martyrdom of Ignatius ch.2 p.129
Ignatius told Trajan, "You are in error when you call the demons of the nations gods. For there is but one God, who made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all that are in them; and one Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, whose kingdom may I enjoy." Trajan asked, do you mean the one who was crucified under Pontius Pilate? The Martyrdom of Ignatius ch.2 p.129
Ignatius called himself and all Christians "Theophorus", God-bearers, for those who carried God in their hearts. The Martyrdom of Ignatius ch.2 p.129
Trajan sent Ignatius to Rome, to be killed by the wild beasts, "for the gratification of the people." The Martyrdom of Ignatius ch.2 p.130
Both Ignatius and his younger friend Polycarp had been disciples of St. John the Apostle. The Martyrdom of Ignatius ch.3 p.130
Quotes and References by Ignatius. There is an authentic short form, and an interpolated longer form. These are only from the short form.
Ignatius quotes or refers to the Eph 5:2 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.1 p.49
Ignatius references Mt 18:19 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.5 p.31
Ignatius quotes Proverbs 3:34. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.5 p.31
Ignatius mention Paul's letter to the Ephesians. Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.12 p.55
Ignatius loosely quotes part of 1 Jn 3:7 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.14 p.55
Ignatius loosely quotes Mt 12:33 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.14 p.55
Allusion to 2 Cor 6:9 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.15 p.56
Allusion to Jn 12:7 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.17 p.56
Allusion to 1 Cor 1:18 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.18 p.56
¼ Quote of 1 Cor 1:20 Ignatius' Letter to the Ephesians ch.18 p.56-57. After this is a paraphrase, but it is an unmistakable reference.
¼ Quote of to 1 Tim 1:1 "Jesus Christ who is our hope" Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.1 p.64
Quotes Proverb 18:17 (Septuagint). The righteous man is his own accuser. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.12 p.64
Ignatius Quotes Isaiah 42:5 Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.8 p.69
Ignatius alludes to 1 Cor 15:8,9 Ignatius' Letter to the Romans ch.9 p.77
Ignatius alludes to 1 Cor 3:16; 6:19 our bodies are "Temples of God" Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians ch.7 p.84
Ignatius quotes of part of Romans 1:3. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.1 p.86
Ignatius says a sentence "Lay hold, handle Me, and see that I am not an incorporeal spirit." This is similar to Lk 24:39, but Jerome says this is from the Gospel of the Nazarenes. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.3 p.87
Ignatius quotes Mt 19:12. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrneans ch.6 p.89
Ignatius loosely quotes Matthew 10:16b, "Be wise as a serpent and harmless as a dove." Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.2 p.94
Ignatius quotes Ephesians 5:25a. Ignatius' Letter to Polycarp ch.5 p.95
The Letter of Barnabas 100-150 A.D.
In the Letter of Barnabas, no one claimed this was the same Barnabas as accompanied Paul until Clement of Alexandria (Stromata 2:6; 2:7, etc) and Origen (Against Celsus 1:63; Commentary on Romans 1:24). (vol.1 p.134)
The Letter of Barnabas is preserved in two copies: Codex Sinaiticus and an ancient Latin version. (vol.1 p.135)
"For to this end the Lord endured to deliver up His flesh to corruption, that we might be sanctified through the remission of sins, which is effected by His blood of sprinkling." He then quotes Isaiah 53 as referring to Jesus. Letter of Barnabas ch.5
Letter of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) 1:139 (losing salvation) "Take heed, lest resting at our ease, as those who are the called [of God], we should fall asleep in our sins, and the wicked prince, acquiring power over us, should thrust us away from the kingdom of the Lord." 1:139 (chap. 4) "This means that the man perishes justly, who, having a knowledge of the way of righteousness, rushes off into the way of darkness. (chap. 5) (Presumably the way of righteousness is open to him).
"Attend, my children, to the meaning of this expression, 'He finished in six days.' This implies that the Lord will finish all things in six thousand years, for a day is with Him a thousand years. And He Himself testifies, saying, "Behold, to-day will be as a thousand years." Therefore, my children, in six days, that is, in six thousand years, all things will be finished. And He rested on the seventh day."Letter of Barnabas ch.15 p.146.
No need of sacrifices today. Letter of Barnabas ch.2 p.137
Quotes Psalm 51:19 with an extra clause at the end. Letter of Barnabas ch.2 p.138
"let us hate the error of the present time, that we may set out love on the world to come" Letter of Barnabas ch.4 p.138
Quotes "For this end the Lord has cut short the times and the days, that His Beloved may hasten; and He will come to the inheritance." The Sinaiticus version says by Enoch, Latin version says by Daniel. Similar to Daniel 9:24-27. Letter of Barnabas ch.4 p.138
Barnabas taught a Christian could lose their salvation. Letter of Barnabas ch.2 p.138; ch.4 p.138
Letter of Barnabas ch.5 p.139 (100-150 A.D.) "For to this end the Lord endured to deliver up His flesh to corruption, that we might be sanctified through the remission of sins, which is effected by His blood of sprinkling. For it is written concerning Him, partly with reference to Israel, and partly to us; and [The Scripture] saith thus: 'He was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities: with His stripes we are healed..." (Isaiah 53:5,7)
Remission of sins is affected by Jesus' blood of sprinkling. Letter of Barnabas ch.5 p.139 (water baptism is not mentioned)
Quotes Proverbs 1:17 from the Septuagint, which differs from the Hebrew. Letter of Barnabas ch.5 p.138
Quotes Genesis 1:20. Letter of Barnabas ch.5 p.139
Jesus came in the flesh. Letter of Barnabas ch.5 p.139,140
Quotes Zechariah 13:7. Letter of Barnabas ch.5 p.140
Quotes Isaiah 50:6-9. Letter of Barnabas ch.6 p.140
Isaac was the one offered on the altar. Letter of Barnabas ch.7 p.141
Jesus declared Himself to be the son of God. Letter of Barnabas ch.7 p.141. See also ch.5 p.139,140; ch.12 p.145; ch.12 p.145
The red heifer is a type of Christ. Letter of Barnabas ch.8 p.142
The Egyptians, Syrians, and Arabs practiced circumcision. Letter of Barnabas ch.9 p.142
Do not be a corrupter of boys. Letter of Barnabas ch.10 p.143
Science error: The hyena annually changes its sex. Letter of Barnabas ch.10 p.143
Science error: The weasel conceives through the mouth. Letter of Barnabas ch.10 p.143
"place their trust in the cross". Letter of Barnabas ch.11 p.144
Quotes Psalm 1:3-6. Letter of Barnabas ch.11 p.144
Quotes blood flowing from wood. Letter of Barnabas ch.12 p.144
A day is as 1,000 years. Letter of Barnabas ch.15 p.146
Jesus rose from the dead. Letter of Barnabas ch.15 p.147
Christians keep the "eighth day" (i.e. Sunday) the day Jesus rose from the dead. Letter of Barnabas ch.15 p.147
Satan is prince of the time of iniquity. Letter of Barnabas ch.18 p.148
Do not be a corrupter of youth. Letter of Barnabas ch.19 p.148
"Thou shalt not slay the child by procuring abortion; nor again, shalt thou destroy it after it is born." Letter of Barnabas ch.19 p.148
As far as possible, be pure in your soul. Letter of Barnabas ch.19 p.148
Messed up quotes: Psalm 22:21; 119:26 ch.5 p.140 Prov 1:17 ch.5 p.139; Dan 7:7,8,24 ch.4 p.138
Magic is one characteristic of the way of darkness. Letter of Barnabas ch.20 p.149
Papias Fragments - died 163 A.D.
Papias was a hearer of John who wrote five books. Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History 3:39 (vol.1 p.153)
If, then, any one who had attend on the elders came, I asked minutely after their sayings, - what Andrew or Peter said, or what was said by Philip, or by Thomas, or by James, or by John, or by Matthew, or by any other of the Lord's disciples: which things Aristion and the presbyter John, the disciples of the Lord, say. For I imagined that what was to be got from books was not so profitable to me as what came from the living and abiding voice." Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History 3:39 (vol.1 p.153)
Justus was a disciple who swallowed deadly poison, and received no harm, on account of the grace of the Lord." Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History 3:39 (vol.1 p.154)
"Amongst these he [Papias] says that there will be a millennium after the resurrection from the dead, when the personal reign of Christ will be established on this earth. He moreover hands down, in his own writing, other narratives given by the previously mentioned Aristion of the Lord's sayings, and the traditions of the presbyter John. For information on these points, we can merely refer our readers to the books themselves; but now, to the extracts already made, we shall add, as being a matter of primary importance, a tradition regarding Mark who wrote the Gospel, which he [Papias] has given in the following words]: And the presbyter said this. Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatever he remembered. It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], but with no intention of giving a regular narrative of the Lord's sayings. Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictitious into the statements. [This is what is related by Papias regarding Mark; but with regard to Matthew he had made the following statements]: Matthew put together the oracles [of the Lord] in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them as best he could [The same person uses proofs from the First Epistle of John, and from the Epistle of Peter in like manner. And he also gives another story of a woman who was accused of many sins before the Lord, which is to be found in the Gospel according to the Hebrews.]" Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History 3:39 (vol.1 p.154)
Papias was a hearer of John and a friend of Polycarp according to Irenaeus Against Heresies 5:32 (vol.1 p.154)
Papias was from Hierapolis. Written by Anastasius Sinaitia. (vol.1 p.155)
Justin Martyr - 135-165 A.D.
Justin Martyr was born about 114 A.D., wrote 135-165 A.D. In his First Apology he says Christ was born 150 years ago.
First Apology of Justin (written c.150 A.D.)
Demons took human form and defiled women and corrupted boys. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.5 p.164
Refutes Christians being called atheists. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.6 p.164
Justin Martyr (135-165 A.D.) "and the host of the other good angels..." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.6 p.164.
Worship and adore the Holy Spirit. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.6 p.164
Plato said wicked punished for 1,000 years, but Justin says everlasting punishment. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.8 p.165
God created all things. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.10 p.165
Wicked go to everlasting punishment / fire. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.12 p.166; First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.16 p.168; ch.17 p.169; Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.117 p.257
Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "God, the Father and Creator of all" The First Apology of Justin ch.8 p.165
Jesus Christ crucified under Pontius Pilate. "...and we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, and we will prove." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.13 p.166-167
People who formerly did fornication and magical arts no longer do so after becoming Christians. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.14 p.167
Justin frequently quotes from memory. First Apology of Justin Martyr footnote 3 p.167
If a man strikes you on one cheek, offer the other, and if someone wants to take away your clock, let him. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.16 p.168.
Quotes Luke 12:28 as by Christ (by Jesus) First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.17 p.168
Called Jesus Christ our Master. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.19 p.169
Reference to the Sibyl and Hystaspes and the Stoics, in contrast to what Christians believe. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.20 p.169
Mention of the Samaritan Simon [Simon Magus] First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.26 p.171
Mention of Marcion the heretic. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.26 p.171
Justin mentions Menander, disciple of Simon the Sorcerer. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.26 p.171
Exposing new babies [to kill them] is wicked. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.28 p.172
Satan and the men who follow him are punished with endless duration. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.28 p.172
Free will: "In the beginning He made the human race with the power of thought and of choosing the truth and doing right, so that all men are without excuse before God." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.28 p.172
A Christian youth tried (unsuccessfully) to get permission to become a eunuch. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.29 p.172
Resurrection: Jesus, born of a virgin, died and rose again, ascended to Heaven, and was call the Son of God. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.31 p.173
Jesus was predicted first 5,000 years, then 3,000 years, then 2,000 years, then 1,000 years, then 800 years before He was crucified. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.31 p.173
Jesus was crucified. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.32 p.173
Mention of the Father, The Son took flesh and became man. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.32 p.173
Mention of Isaiah 7:14 referring to Christ. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.33 p.174
Mention of Micah 5:2 (Bethlehem) as Messianic. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.33 p.174
Mention of Isaiah 9:6 as Messianic. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.33 p.174
Mention of Psalm 22:16 as by David. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.35 p.174
Mention of the Acts of Pontius Pilate. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.35 p.175. Footnote 1 says these were destroyed at an early period, and what we have today is a more recent forgery.
Quote of Isaiah 1:4 from the Septuagint with one word different. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.37 p.175
Quote of Psalm 22:18; 23:5 as Messianic. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.38 p.175
Justin quotes all of Psalm 1 and 2. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.40 p.176
Justin quote Psalm 96, with an extra phrase: "The Lord has reigned from the tree." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.41 p.176
First Apology of Justin Martyr (114-165 A.D.) ch. 41 p.176 "David, intimated that Christ, after He had been crucified, should reign,..." In chapter 50 p.179 Justin also quotes Isaiah 53 as referring to Christ.
Free will: "And again, unless the human race have the power of avoiding evil and choosing good by free choice, they are not accountable for their actions, of whatever kind they be. But that it is by free choice they both walk uprightly and stumble, we thus demonstrate." ... Unlike man, trees and quadrupeds cannot act by choice. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.43 p.177
Free will: "So, too, Plato, when he says, 'The blame is his who chooses, and God is blameless,' took this from the prophet Moses and uttered it. For Moses is more ancient than all the Greek writers." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.44 p.177
God's foretelling does not does not prove fatal necessity or nullify free will because God's foretelling is through His foreknowledge. "The words cited above, David uttered 1500 years before Christ... But lest some suppose, from what has been said by us, that we say that whatever happens, happens by a fatal necessity, because it is foretold as known beforehand, this too we explain." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.44 p.177 (end of the page)
Negative mention of Hystaspes and the Sibyl. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.44 p.178
God is a Father. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.45 p.178
The Father raised Jesus from the dead. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.45 p.178
Christ was born 150 years ago under Cyrenius [Quirinius]. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.46 p.178
Some of every race are of Christ. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.46 p.178
Those who lived reasonably before Christ are Christians, even though they might have been thought atheists. Justin mentions Socrates, Heraclitus, Abraham, Ananias, Azarias, Misael, Elijah and says many others. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.46 p.178
Justin quotes Daniel 7:13 but mistakenly says it is by Jeremiah. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.51 p.180
The bodies of all men shall be raised, some to immortality and some with eternal sensibility to everlasting fire with the wicked devils. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.52 p.180
We believe of a crucified man that he is the first-born on an unbegotten God. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.53 p.180
Both Jews and Samaritans were called the tribe of Israel. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.53 p.180
The men of Sodom and Gomorrah were ungodly. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.53 p.181
Moses was older than all these Greek writers. He gives examples of Belleriophon, Perseus, Hercules, Aesclapius, and sons of Jupiter. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.54-59 p.181-182
Isaiah prophesied of a virgin having a son. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.54 p.181
Simon Magus was in Rome under Claudius Caesar. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.56 p.182
Mention of Menander the heretic. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.56 p.182
The devils can persuade men there is no conflagration for the wicked. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.57 p.182
Marcion of Pontus. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.48 p.182
Plato and the cross. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.60 p.183
Quotes Matthew 11:27 as by Jesus Himself.
"For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these [Eucharist]; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.66 p.185
Crucified under Pontius Pilate. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.61 p.183
Obtain in the water a remission of sins. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.61 p.183
Jesus was crucified on the day before Saturday [Friday] and rose the day after Saturday [Sunday]. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.67 p.186
Jesus Christ Son of God. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.63 p.184
Justin quotes spurious letter of the Emperor Adrian. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.68 p.186-187
God is a Father. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.61 p.183; ch.63 p.184
"For the Apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them;" First Apology of Justin ch.66 p.185
Second Apology of Justin
Mention of eternal fire. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.2 p.188
God is a Father. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.2 p.189
Christians were called atheists. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.3 p.189
Socrates too was killed for speaking out. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.3 p.189
God made the world for the sake of the human race. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.4 p.189
Speak the truth in all things and know what is pleasing to God. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.4 p.189
Nephilim: Some angels transgressed by love of women and begetting children. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.5 p.190
Some magical writings are by fallen angels. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.5 p.190
Unbegotten Father of all. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.6 p.190
His Son is alone properly called His Son. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.6 p.190
Jesus was made man and crucified under Pontius Pilate. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.6 p.190
God delays destroying the world because of the seed of Christians. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.7 p.190
Justin mentions Plato and Epicurus. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.12 p.192
Justin mentions the Sotadists, Philaenidians, Dancers, and Epicureans. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.15 p.193
Noah is the same as the Greek Deucalion. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.196
Stoics taught that all things will be changed into one another. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.7 p.190
Socrates too was an earnest man who suffered persecution too. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.7 p.190
While the Stoics say fate, God made the angles and all men, with free will. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.7 p.190
If free will is wrong, and the Stoics were right in that human actions come about by fate, then God Himself would emerge in part and whole in every wickedness; or that virtue or vice is anything. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.7 p.190-191
The devils and those who serve them will be shut up in eternal fire. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.8 p.191; ch.9 p.191
Like Christ, Socrates was killed for trying to prove tings by reason. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.10 p.191
God is a Father (2 times). Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.10 p.191,192
Death is a debt due every man that is born. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.11 p.192
Christians were falsely accused of killing people and drinking blood. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.12 p.192
"For whatever things are rightly said among all men, are the property of us Christians." Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.13 p.193
We worship and love the word, who became a man.13 p.193
Justin despised his fellow Samaritan, the heretic Simon [Simon Magus]. Second Apology of Justin Martyr ch.15 p.193
Dialogue with Trypho the Jew
Justin wrote a long work called Dialogue with Trypho the Jew. To Trypho, who denied Jesus' divinity, Justin devoted a total of thirteen chapters (55-56,59,61-64,66,74-78) to prove that Jesus is God. Like most early church fathers, Justin taught that the appearances of God in the Old Testament were appearances of Jesus in the form of an angel.
Justin briefly describes the many-headed schools of Greek philosophy. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.2 p.195
After studying Plato, Justin says in his [Justin's] stupidity he had supposed he had become wise. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.2 p.195
Justin explains how he was converted to Christianity, walking in a field not far from the sea and encountering an old man who was a Christian. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.3 p.195-196
Justin Martyr (135-165 A.D.) made the argument against reincarnation, that souls would be punished for reasons they know not. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.4 p.197
Some Platoists taught the soul is immortal and unbegotten. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.5 p.197
The Creator is God and Father or all things and His Son Jesus. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.7 p.198
"Moreover, I would wish that all, making a resolution similar to my own, do not keep themselves away from the words of the Saviour. For they possess a terrible power in themselves, and are sufficient to inspire those who turn aside from the path of rectitude with awe; while the sweetest rest is afforded those who make a diligent practice of them. If, then, you have any concern for yourself, and if you are eagerly looking for salvation, and if you believe in God, you may - since you are not indifferent to the matter - became acquainted with the Christ of God, and, after being initiated, live a happy life." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.8 p.198
War was waging in Judea during this time, which dates this writing at or just after 135 A.D. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.9 p.199. Also ch.1 p.195
Trypho says the Christians rested their hopes on a man that was crucified. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.10 p.199
There was never any true God for anyone but the Creator, and there will never be any other God. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.11 p.199
We are led to God through this crucified Christ. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.11 p.200
We are no longer purified by the blood of goats, and sheep, or the ashes of a heifer, but by faith through the blood of Christ, and through His death, who died for this very reason." Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.13 p.200
Paraphrase of Isaiah 53 in the Septuagint. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.13 p.201
Strong allusion to Jeremiah 2:13-14 Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.14 p.201
Jesus was crucified, and "through whose stripes those who approach the Father by Him are healed" Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.17 p.203
Allusion to Jeremiah, that they have forsaken living water and dug for themselves cisterns that can hold no water. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.19 p.203
Circumcision was not always commanded: Adam, Abel, and Lot sacrificed to God or were saved by God and were uncircumcised. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.18 p.204
Extensive quote of Psalm 50 as by David. [He calls it Psalm 49]. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.22 p.205
Mention that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was born of a virgin without sin. Jesus was from Abraham. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.23 p.205 (Says ch.33 but that is a typo).
The fact that females cannot be circumcised proves that it was given as a sign, and not for a work of righteousness. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.23 p.206
We are not to be lovers of gifts, nor hunters after revenge, nor fail in doing judgment for orphans or the widow. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.27 p.208
Mention of Daniel prophesying the Son of man coming on the clouds, with his angels with him, etc. in Daniel 7:9-28. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.31 p.209-210
Mention that Christ's enemies will be his footstool. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.32 p.210
Refutation of why Psalm 110 does not refer to King Hezekiah. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.33 p.211
Against Preterism: "For Christ is King, and Priest, and God, and Lord, and angel, and man, and captain, and stone, and a Son born, and first made subject to suffering, then returning to heaven, and again coming with glory." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.33 p.211
Solomon was led astray by a woman's influence to worship the idols of Sidon. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.34211-212
Justin was aware of Valentinus, Basilides, Saturnalus, and other Gnostics. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.35 p.212
"...permit me first to recount the prophecies, which I wish to do in order to prove that Christ is called both God and Lord of hosts, and Jacob, in parable by the Holy Spirit;" Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.36 p.212
Justin quotes from Psalm 45 (calling it Psalm 44). Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.38 p.213
Mention of God telling Elijah there were 7,000 who had not bowed the knee to Baal. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.39 p.214; ch.46 p.218
Shape of the cross: "...and that lamb which was commanded to be wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross which Christ would undergo. For the lab, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of a cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head [vertically], and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb [horizontally]." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.40 p.214
Twelve bells attached to the robe of the high priest were symbols of the 12 apostles. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.42 p.215
Isaiah 53: refers to Christ. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.43 p.217
Justin mentions Isaiah 7:14 as referring to Christ. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.43 p.216
Whether they are Jacob, Enoch, or Noah, they will live according to their own righteousness. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.45 p.217
Never heard: Those who did which was universally, naturally, and eternally good are pleasing to God, they will be saved through Christ in the resurrection equally with the righteous men before them, such as Noah, Enoch, Jacob, and others. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.45 p.217
"At the second coming of the Christ Himself, those who believe in Him and live acceptably, - and be no more: when some are sent to be punished unceasingly into judgment and condemnation of fire: Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.45 p.217
Mention in Zechariah [really Malachi 4:5] that Elijah would come before the great and dreadful day of the Lord. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.49 p.219
The Spirit of Elijah coming on John the Baptist was similar to the Spirit that was on Moses coming upon Joshua. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.49 p.220
Quotes of Zechariah 9:9 and mention that Zechariah was one of the twelve [minor] prophets. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.53 p.222
Mention of God as the Maker and Father of all things. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.56 p.223
Mention of Isaac born after Ishmael, who was sent away. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.56 p.223
I [Justin] replied again, 'If I could not have proved to you from the Scriptures that one of those three is God, and is called Angel, because, as I already said, He brings messages to those to whom God the Maker of all things wishes..." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.55 p.223
Mention that "He who is called God and appeared to the patriarchs is called both Angel and Lord, in order that from this you may understand Him to be minister to the Father of all things, as you have already admitted,..." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.58 p.225
Mention that the appearances of God in the Old Testament were either Christ, or Christ and the Father. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.60,61 p.227
"The Word of Wisdom who is Himself this God begotten of the Father of all things, and Word and Wisdom and Power, and the Glory of the Begetter ..." (Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.61 p.227) See chapters 55,56,59,62-64,66,74-78
"Therefore these words testify explicitly that He [Jesus] is witnessed to by Him [the Father] who established these things, as deserving to be worshipped as God and as Christ." (Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.63 p.229)
"Here Trypho [the Jew] said, 'Let Him be recognized as Lord and Christ and God as the Scriptures declare by you of the Gentiles, who have from His name been all called Christians; but we who are servants of God that made this same [Christ] do not require to confess or worship Him.'" (Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.64 p.229)
Christ being born of a virgin was prophesied by Isaiah. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.66 p.231
Both Trypho and Justin agreed that the righteous patriarchs who lived before Moses were saved. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.66 p.231
Non-Transubstantiation: "Now it is evident, that in this prophecy [allusion is made] to the bread which our Christ gave us to eat, in remembrance of His being made flesh for the sake of His believers, for whom also He suffered; and to the cup which He gave us to drink, in remembrance of His own blood,..." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.71 p.234
Justin Martyr mentions Mithras. Dialogue with Trypho ch.70 p.234
Quote from Esdras. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.72 p.234
Mention that Jesus and Joshua had the same name. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.75 p.236
Revelation by John: Millennium: Justin Martyr also mentions a literal millennium in Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.75-81 p.236-240. In ch.81 he says, "And further, there was a certain man with us, whose name was John, one of the apostles of Christ, who prophesied, by a revelation that was made to him, that those who believed in our Christ would dwell a thousand years in Jerusalem; and that thereafter the general, and, in short, the eternal resurrection and judgment of all men would likewise take place."
The Magi came to Herod from Arabia. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.78 p.237
Justin mentions that after the Magi left, Herod slaughtered all the children in Bethlehem. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.78 p.238
In Jeremiah's prophecy of the voice of Rachel from Ramah, Justin incorrectly identifies this with a Ramah in Arabia. However, Justin also calls Damascus a part of Arabia. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.78 p.238
Justin says Isaiah obscurely predicts the Millennium of 1,000 years. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.81 p.239
Length of day: 1,000 years is as a day refers to the millennium (Day of the Lord). Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.81 p.240
Christ would dwell 1,000 years in Jerusalem. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.81 p.240
Mention that in the time of Hezekiah the angel of the Lord slew about 185,000 Assyrians. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.83 p.240
Jesus was crucified under Pontius Pilate. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.85 p.241; ch.102 p.250
Solomon had the spirit of wisdom, Daniel understanding and counsel, Moses might and piety, Elijah fear, Isaiah of knowledge, David, Jeremiah, and the other prophets had special gifts too. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.87 p.243
When Jesus was baptized by John, a fire was kindled in the Jordan River. When He came out, the Spirit descended like a dive. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.88 p.243
Jesus did not submit to be born and crucified because of his need, but because of the human race. God endowed both angels and men with free will. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.88 p.243
Justin quotes Psalm 2:7 (you are my son, today I have begotten you.) Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.89 p.244
When Joshua and Hur and Aaron held up Moses' hands when they fought the Amalekites, this was a type of the shape of the cross. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.90 p.244
Mention that the cross had two beams. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.90 p.245
Jesus summed up all righteousness and piety in the two great commandments, (heart and strength). Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.93 p.246
A curse lies on people who were crucified, yet no curse lies on Jesus. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.94 p.247
Jesus submitted to suffer these things according to the Father's will. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.95 p.247
Justin quotes Luke 6:35 (love your enemies...) saying Jesus said it. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.96 p.247
Justin mention the 21st Psalm (really Psalm 22). Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.97 p.247
Justin quotes all of what he calls the 22nd Psalm (really Psalm 23) as referring to Christ. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.98 p.248
"For we know that the fathers of women are the fathers likewise of those children whom their daughters bear". Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.100 p.249
"since he 'Peter] recognized Him to be Christ the Son of God, by the revelation of His Father: and since we find it recorded in the memoirs of His apostles that He is the Son of God, and since we call Him the Son, we have understood that He proceeded before all creatures from the Father by His power and will) ... and that He became man by the Virgin,..." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.100 p.249
Calvinism: He taught that all men ought to hope in God who created all things, and seek salvation and help from Him alone;..." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.102 p.250
Quotes Psalm 2:7 and Matthew 3:17 as in the memoirs of the apostles (2 times). Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.103 p.250, also ch.105 p.251 ch.107 p.252
Mentions Jesus' sweat like drops of blood in the Garden of Gethsemane that the Father really wished His Son to undergo this suffering, and that the Son really did feel what was happening to Him. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.103 p.251
Moses stretching out his hands was symbolic of the cross. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.111 p.254 ch.112 p.255
Mention that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.113 p.255
Noah was the father of Abraham, and of all men. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.119 p.259
It was Jesus who led the Israelites out of Egypt. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.120 p.259
Isaiah was sawn asunder with a wooden saw. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.120 p.259
Both Justin and Simon the magician were Samaritans. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.120 p.260
Believers are sons of God. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.124 p.261
Justin's Mistake: Justin said that Jesus was God, but Jesus was the first-begotten of all creatures. "He [Jesus] ministered to the will of the Father, yet nevertheless is God, in that He is the first-begotten of all creatures." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.125 p.262
Mention of Jesus being God.127 p.263
Those who transgress will be consumed by the worm and unquenchable fire, remaining immortal. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.130 p.264-265
Mention of the "seventy" who translated the Septuagint. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.131 p.265; ch.137 p.268
Mention that Jesus was crucified. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.131 p.265 (2 times); ch.137 p.268; ch.141 p.269
The sun stood still and did not go down for 36 hours. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.132 p.265
Rachel and Leah are types of the Church and Israelites respectively. Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.134 p.267
Eternal punishment: mention "that their worm shall not cease, and their fire shall not be quenched" Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.140 p.269
Predestination: "...that God, wishing men and angels to follow His will, resolved to create them free to do righteousness;" Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.141 p.270
Discourse to the Greeks
The writer, presumably Justin Martyr, said he found nothing in the writings of the Greeks that is holy or acceptable to God. Justin's Discourse to the Greeks ch.1 p.271
Justin mentions Homer and Hesiod in The Discourse to the Greeks ch.1 p.271
Hortatory Address to the Greeks
Justin mentions Polemon and his book Hellenics, Apoon son of Posidonius and his book Against the Jews, Hellanicus, Philochorus, Castor, Thallus,, Alexander Polyhistor, Philo, Josephus in Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.9 p.277
The writer, perhaps Justin Martyr, mentions Flavius Josephus and Philo. Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.9 p.277; ch.10 p.277; ch.13 p.279
Mention that Ptolemy, king of Egypt, sent for 70 wise men from Jerusalem to translate the Bible into Greek. All [allegedly] translated the Bible exactly the same way. Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.13 p.278-279
Mention of God's proper name "I am that I am". Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.20 p.281; ch.21 p.281
Claim the Plato, Homer, and selected other Greek writers had learned some truths from Moses' writings. Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.25-28, p.280-285
Plato wrote: "Time, accordingly, was created along with the heavens" Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.33 p.287
Justin mentions Berosus the Chaldean historian. Justin's Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.37 p.288
Fragments of Justin's work On the Resurrection
Justin Martyr says this was said by our Savior and quotes Mark 2:17. On the Resurrection ch.8 p.297
Justin's work On the Resurrection (of believers) in Chapter 9 uses as an argument that "Why did He (Jesus) rise in the flesh in which He suffered unless to show the resurrection of the flesh?"
Fragments from Justin Martyr's Writings
"...eternal fire was prepared for him who voluntarily departed from God..." Justin Martyr Fragment 3 p.300
"We shall not injure God by remaining ignorant of Him, but shall deprive ourselves of His friendship." Justin Martyr Fragment 7 p.300
"When God formed man at the beginning, He suspended the things of nature on his will, and made an experiment by means of one commandment. For He ordained that, if he kept this, he should partake of immortal existence; but if he transgressed it, the contrary should be his lot." Justin Martyr Fragment 11 p.301
"As it is inherent in all bodies formed by God to have a shadow, so it is fitting that God, who is just, should render to those who choose what is good, and to those who prefer what is evil, to every one according to his deserts." Justin Martyr Fragment 12 p.301 from the Writings of John of Damascus.
Didache - c.125 A.D.
The Didache is also called the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles
Didache ch.1.5 p.377 (c.125 A.D.) "For the Father wants his gifts to be universally shared). The Father is also mentioned on ch.7.1 p.379; ch.8.2 p.379; ch.9.3 p.380; ch.10.1 p.380
Didache ch.1.5 p.377 (c.125 A.D.) First love the Lord your God, and second, love your neighbor as yourself.
Didache ch.1.5 p.377 (c.125 A.D.) Bless, pray for, and fast for your enemies.
Didache ch.2.1-4 p.377 (c.125 A.D.) Do not commit murder, adultery, corrupt boys, magic, witchcraft, "murder a child by abortion, nor kill that which is begotten", covet, steal, bear false witness. See also Didache ch.5 p.379.
Didache ch.2.7 p.378 (c.125 A.D.) "Thou shalt not hate any man"
Didache ch.3.1 p.378 (c.125 A.D.) "My child, flee from every evil thing, and every likeness of it."
Didache ch.3.4 p.378 (c.125 A.D.) Do not observe omens, be an enchanter, astrologer, or look at these things.
Didache ch.3.9-10 p.378 (c.125 A.D.) Teach your son and daughter the fear of God.
Didache ch.2.10 p.379 (c.125 A.D.) Do not you're your servants any cause for bitterness.
Didache ch.5 p.379 (c.125 A.D.) The way of death is cursings, murder, adulteries, fornication, lusts, magic arts, idolatries, witchcraft, filthy talking, jealousies,
Didache ch.6.3 p.379 (c.125 A.D.) "...but against that which is sacrificed to idols be exceedingly on thy guard, it is the service of dead gods."
"baptize into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in living water. But if thou have not living water, baptize into other water; and if thou canst not in cold, in warm. But if thou have not either, pour out water thrice upon the head into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit." Didache (c.125 A.D.) ch.7 p.379
Didache ch.11.3-4 p.380 (c.125 A.D.) People called apostles and prophets were in the church in the time of the Didache.
Didache ch.12.5 p.380 (c.125 A.D.) Some are "Christ-mongers", i.e. using the name of Christ to get rich. However, it is fine for ministers to receive money for ministering.
Didache ch.14.1 p.381 (c.125 A.D.) Every Lord's Day [Sunday], gather together, break bread, give thanks, and confess to each other.
Didache ch.15.3-4 p.381 (c.125 A.D.) Mention of the Gospel as an authority.
Didache ch.16.2 p.382 (c.125 A.D.) In the last days corrupters will be multiplied and sheep will turn to wolves.
Didache ch.16.5 p.382 (c.125 A.D.) "They that endure in their faith shall be saved."
Didache ch.16.8 p.383 (c.125 A.D.) "And then shall appear the signs of the truth; first the sign of the outspreading of heaven; then the sign of the sound of the trumpet; and third, the resurrection of the dead; yet not of all, but as it is said: The Lord shall come and all his saints with Him. Then shall the world see the Lord coming upon the clouds of heaven" (quote from part of Matthew 24:30.
Second Clement 2nd century A.D. - not started
2 Clement 3:1 (2nd century) "save refusing to deny him [Jesus] through whom we came to know the Father?"
2 Clement (200-250 A.D.) "let us do the will of the Father who called us, that we may live;" ch.10 p.519
2 Clement ch.1 vol.9 p.251 mentions God as a Father.
Second Clement 2nd century 7:522 -lose salvation. Chapter 17
Shepherd of Hermas 160 A.D. - Unfinished
A copy of the Shepherd of Hermas found as Papyrus Michigan 130 has been found and dated from 161-180 A.D. Irenaeus references the Shepherd of Hermas and he wrote in 185 A.D.
The Pastor/Shepherd of Hermas is at the end of the Sinaiticus manuscript (p.7)
Shepherd of Hermas 160 A.D. 2:36 "...and reflecting on the commandments, that they are excellent, and powerful, and glorious, and able to save a man's soul" Shepherd of Hermas 6:1.
those "who have indeed believed, but through doubt have abandoned the true road." ... "But those which fell into the fire and were burned, are those who have departed for even from the living God; nor does the thought of repentance ever come into their hearts, on account of their devotion to their lusts and to the crimes which they committed." Shepherd of Hermas (160 A.D.) book 1 ch.7 p.15
"Is repentance possible for all those stones [people] which have been cast away and did not fit into the building of the tower, and will they yet have a place in this tower?' 'Repentance', said she, 'is yet possible, but in this tower they cannot find a suitable place. But in another and much inferior place they will be laid, and that, too, only when they have been tortured and completed the days of their sins. ... And then only will they be removed from their punishments when the thought of repenting of the evil deeds which they have done has come into their hearts. But if it does not come into their hearts, they will not be saved, on account of the hardness of their heart." Shepherd of Hermas book 1 vision 3 ch.7 p.15
"you .. have not cast your cares upon the Lord." (quote of have of 1 Peter 1:17) Shepherd of Hermas book 1 vision 3 ch.11 p.17
"God ... gave them His Son." Shepherd of Hermas book 3 similitude 5 ch.6 p.35
"He Himself [Jesus], then, having purged away the sins of the people, showed them the paths of life by giving them the law which He received from His Father." Shepherd of Hermas book 3 similitude 5 ch.6 p.35
Shepherd of Hermas book 3 similitude 5 ch.6 p.35 (160 A.D.) says that God gave them to His Son. Also, Jesus received from His Father.
The commandments are excellent, powerful, glorious, and able to save a man's soul. Shepherd of Hermas book 3 similitude 6 ch.1 p.36
1/2 Heb, Jms, 1 Pet
Quotes in the Shepherd of Hermas
Mt 10:28 (1/2)
Mt 10:39 (1/2)
Mt 18:3 (1/2)
Mt 19:14 (1/2)
1 Cor 7:35 (1/2)
Heb 13:17 (1/2)
Jms 4:12 (1/2)
Jms 5:19-20 (1/2)
1 Pet 5:7 (1/2)
Rev 19:8 (1/5)
Allusions and References in the Shepherd of Hermas that are not quotes or close paraphrases
The Shepherd of Hermas ch.31 p.53-54 (c.100 A.D.) alludes to Jeremiah 13:20 and Zechariah 11:15-17 about straying shepherds.
Mt 5:28; 13:5
1 Cor 3:16,17
Jms 1:9-11,27; 2:1-9; 4:11
These are mentioned in the Ante-Nicene Fathers index but are not really even allusions.
Claudius Apollinaris, Bishop of Hierapolis 160-180 A.D.
Claudius tells how a legion of the Roman army prayed, and rain was given to them when they were thirty, while lightning bolts plagued the enemy. This is why they were called the thundering legion. Fragment of Claudius Apollinaris p.772-773
Claudius says "the fourteenth day, the true Passover of the Ord; the great sacrifice, the Son of God instead of a lamb" Fragment of Claudius Apollinaris p.773
Claudius Apollinaris (160-180 A.D.) mentions that Jesus was crucified, and water and blood poured out of his side. Fragment of Claudius Apollinaris p.773
Melito of Sardis - wrote 170-180 A.D. - Not started
Polycrates mentions Melito the eunuch and is buried in Sardis. Polycrates Fragment p.774
Melito of Sardis (170-177 A.D.) said of the crucifixion that "God is murdered".
Melito of Sardis (170-177 A.D.) says "those who love him speak of Him thus; 'Father, and God of Truth'" in his Discourse ch.1 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.751
Melito of Sardis (170-177 A.D.) "He [Jesus] was man, yet not ceasing to feed the entire world inasmuch as He is God; putting on the likeness of a servant, yet not impairing the likeness of His Father." in his Discourse 3 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.756
Melito of Sardis (170-177 A.D.) "This is He [Jesus] who took a bodily form in the Virgin, and was hanged upon the tree, and was buried within the earth, and suffered not dissolution; He who rose from the place of the dead, and raised up men from the earth - from the grace below to the height of heaven. This is the Lamb that was slain;..." in his Discourse 5 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.757
Rhodon c.180 A.D.
Rhodon (c.180 A.D.) mentions the heretics Apelles, Potitus, Basilicus, and Marcion. Rhodon fragment p.766.
Rhodon (c.180 A.D.) says that Apelles prided himself on the strictness of his life. Apelles taught there is only one first principle. Rhodon fragment p.766.
Theophilus, Bishop of Caesarea 180 A.D.
Theophilus of Caesarea wrote to send his letter among all the churches, "so that those who easily deceive their own souls may not be able to lay the blame on us." He was concerned that some Christian celebrated the festival [of Easter] on a different day. Theophilus of Caesarea fragment p.774
Maximus, Bishop of Jerusalem 185-190 A.D.
5 1/2 pages)
Maximus discusses the problem of evil. He says that matter was created by God, yet God is not the author of evil. Fragment of Maximums p.767-783
Theophilus of Antioch - wrote 168-181/188 A.D.
Theophilus was born around 115 A.D., became bishop of Antioch in 168 A.D., and died either 181 or 188 A.D. The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.2 p.87-88
Bishops of Antioch were Euodius, Ignatius, Hero, Cornelius, Eros, and Theophilus. The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.2 p.88
Eusebius and Jerome said Theophilus wrote several books against heresies. Jerome says he also wrote a harmony/commentary on the gospels, and a commentary on the book of Proverbs. These have been lost though. The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.2 p.88
"Yet it does not follow, because the blind do not see, that the light of the sun does not shine, but let the blind blame themselves and their own eyes. So also thou, O man, hast the eyes of thy soul overspread by thy sins and evil deeds." Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.2 p.89
Homosexuality: Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) mentions sins such as adultery, fornication, theft, robber, and corrupter of boys. Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.2 p.89
Theophilus mentions God the Father in his Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 (2 times), book 1 ch.4 p.90; book 2 ch.22 p.103; book 2 ch.34 p.108 (total of 5 times)
Theophilus speaks of God being Light, Word, Mind, Spirit, Wisdom, Strength, Power, Providence, goodness, gory, judge, father, fire. Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90
Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 1 ch.14 p.90 "He is creator and maker of the universe; the Highest, because of His being above all; and Almighty, because He Himself rules and embraces all."
God is angry toward those who act wickedly, but He is good, kind, and merciful to those who love and fear Him. He is a chastener and father of the godly, but a judge and punisher of the impious. Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90
God moderates His power. For example, if the lightning were allowed all its power, it would burn up the earth; and were if the thunder allowed all its power, it would overthrow the same. Theophilus' Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.6 p.91
Theophilus bishop of Antioch after Ignatius 168-181 A.D. 2:91 "And this is your condition, because of the blindness of your soul, and the hardness of your heart. But, if you will, you may be healed. Entrust yourself to the Physician [God], and He will couch the eyes of your soul and of your heart." To Autolycus book 1 ch.7 p.91.
Why worship Greek gods? Saturn was a cannibal, Jupiter was an adulterer, even with his own daughter. Mars is the "pest of mortals", some gods got wounded, and Osiris was torn lib from limb. Atys was mutilated, Aesculapius was struck by a thunderbolt from Zeus. Theophilus' Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.9 p.91
Theophilus provides evidence for the reasonableness of physical resurrection. Theophilus' Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.13 p.92-93
Theophilus used to be a pagan, but after reading the Scriptures became a Christian. Theophilus' Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93
Hell: "...if now you continue unbelieving, you be convinced hereafter, when you are tormented with eternal punishments..." Theophilus' Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93
Hell: "But do you also, if you please, give reverential attention to the prophetic Scriptures, and they will make your way plainer for escaping the eternal punishments, and obtaining the eternal prizes of God. Theophilus' Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93
Hell: Theophilus mentions everlasting fire. Theophilus' Letter to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93
Theophilus mentions having mutual friendliness with Autolycus, his antagonist. Theophilus in Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.1 p.94
Epicurus and Chrysippus said either there is no god at all, or if there is, he cares only for himself. Theophilus in Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.4 p.95
"that out of things that are not [God] creates and has created things that are, and whatever He pleases, as He pleases." Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.4 p.95
Theophilus asks how material could arrange itself into a world and many men. After all, Jupiter and even Saturn were born long after the world was made. Theophilus in Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.6 p.96
"But men of God carrying in them a Holy Spirit and becoming prophets, being inspired and made wise by God, became God-taught, and holy, and righteous." Theophilus in Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.9 p.97
Besides prophets among the Hebrews, there was the Sibyl among the Greeks. Theophilus in Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.9 p.97
All the prophets taught that God made all things out of nothing; for nothing was coeval with God. Theophilus in Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98
"God, then, having His own Word internal within His own bowels, begat Him, emitting Him along with His own wisdom before all things. He had this Word as a helper in all the things that were created by Him, and by Him He made all things." Theophilus in Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98
On pagan philosophers, writers, and poets, Theophilus said, "For even if any truth seems to have been uttered by them, it has a mixture of error. And as a deleterious drug, when mixed with honey or wine, or some other thing, makes the whole [mixture] hurtful and profitless; so also eloquence is in their case found to be labour in vain; yea, rather an injurious thing to those who credit it." Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.12 p.99
Theophilus (168-181/188 A.D.) was one of the earliest Christian writers who mentioned Creation and explicitly said "for nothing evil was made by God."(To Autolycus book 2 ch.17 p.101)
Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries [sun, moon, and stars] are types of the Trinity, of God, and His Word, and His wisdom." To Autolycus book 2 ch.15 p.101.
Theophilus, bishop of Antioch (168-181/186 A.D.) Man was made in the image of God. To Autolycus book 2 ch.18 p.101
Theophilus, bishop of Antioch (168-181/186 A.D.) "For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son?" Letter to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.103
"John says, 'In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God' ... Then he says, 'The Word was God.''" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.103
Theophilus believed that prior to the Fall Paradise was all of the earth. [This cannot be correct, because otherwise the Bible would not have said "in the east".] Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.24 p.104
If Adam and Eve had not sinned, they would have matured, become perfect, and ascend to heaven in possession of immortality. Mankind had a middle nature, neither wholly mortal, nor altogether immortal, or Paradise was between earth and heaven. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.24 p.104. See also book 2 ch.27 p.105
The tree of knowledge and its fruit were good. There is nothing in the fruit except knowledge, and knowledge is good if used discreetly. However, the problem was the disobedience. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.25 p.104
"For God made man free, and with power over himself. That, then, which man brought upon himself through carelessness and disobedience, this God now vouchsafes to him as a gift through His own philanthropy and pity, when men obey Him. For as man, disobeying, drew death upon himself; so, obeying the will of God, he who desires is able to procure for himself life everlasting. For God has given us a law and holy commandments; and every one who keeps these can be saved, and obtaining the resurrection, can inherit incorruption." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.27 p.105
The first book is "Genesis" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.29 p.105
The Greek Deucalion is equivalent to Noah. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.30 p.106
In Genesis 14:1,9 Theophilus mentions King Arioch, King Ellasar, King Chederlaomer, and others. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.31 p.107.
Theophilus mistakenly thought Chederlaomer's battle was the first war upon the earth. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.31 p.107
Christians were falsely accused of having wives in common, incest with their own sisters, and eating human flesh. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.4 p.112
Plato in The Republic recommended that the wives of all be in common. [5th book p.460] Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.6 p.112
Theophilus claimed Epicurus taught incest with mothers and sisters. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.6 p.112
Theophilus claimed the Stoics taught incest and sodomy. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.6 p.112
Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.114 says "found both with the prophets and in the Gospels, because they all spoke inspired by one Spirit of God."
The scriptures teach that we are not only not to sin in act, but not even in heart or thought think of evil nor lust after another's wife. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.8 p.115
Theophilus of Antioch (115-181/186 A.D.) quotes from Zechariah 7:9,10 in his Letter to Autolycus book 3 ch.7 p.115.
Christians not only were falsely accused, but Christians are even forbidden to watch the shows of gladiators, lest they become partakers and abettors of murders. They cannot see other spectacles either. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.15 p.115
Some, such as Apollonius the Egyptian, claimed the world was created 153,075 years ago. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.16 p.116
Plato implied that 10^8 years had passed between the creation of the world and the time of Daedalus. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.16 p.116
Plato believed in a worldwide flood, except that it only covered the plains, and some saved themselves by fleeing to the mountains. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.18 p.116
Only eight people were saved in the flood. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.19 p.116-117.
Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 3 ch.19 p.116-117 speaks of the deluge sent by God and Noah and his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth surviving, along with their wives. All but these eight were destroyed.
Theophilus said the remains of the ark could be seen in his day in the Arabian mountains.Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.19 p.117
The Pharaoh of the Exodus was names Amasis [Ahmose]. After the Exodus, he reigned 25 years and 4 months, based on the chronology of Manetho. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.20 p.117
Manetho was wrong to claim the Hebrews were banished from Egypt because of leprosy. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.21 p.117
From Manetho's writings, Moses and the Exodus are 900 or even 1000 years before the Trojan war. [This actually is not true. The Exodus was about 1445 B.C., and the Trojan War was about 1200 B.C.] Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.21 p.117
Theophilus says that in his time the correspondence between Solomon and Hiram of Tyre was preserved among the Tyrians. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.22 p.117-118
155 years and 8 months after Hiram became king, King Pygmalius of Tyre had a sister who fled to Libya and built the city of Carthage. So Carthage was founded 154 years and 8 months. [This is pretty accurate. The Temple construction was started about 966 B.C. and it took some years to complete. Carthage was founded around 770 B.C. or so.] Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.22 p.118
Mention of Josephus who wrote of the Jewish War. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.23 p.118
There were 2,242 years from creation to the flood. There were 3,278 years from Creation to Abraham. Moses died 3,938 years after creation. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.24 p.118
There were 4,954 years from Creation until the captivity in Babylon. The captivity ended when Cyrus became king of the Persians in the second year of his reign. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.25 p.119
Cyrus was killed by Tomyris in the country of the Massagetae in the 62nd Olympiad (220 A.U.C.). Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.27 p.119-120
There were 2,242 years from Creation to the flood, and 1,036 more years after that until Abraham. There were 660 years after that until the Exodus. From the death of Moses to the death of David was 498 years. From the death of David to the captivity in Babylon was 518 years, 6 months, 10 days. From the government of Cyrus to Roman Emperor Aurelius Verus was 744 years. [Verus died 169 A.D.] Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.28 p.120
"And perhaps our knowledge of the whole number of years is not quite accurate, because the odd months and days are not set down in the sacred books. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.29 p.120
Quotes by Theophilus
Mt 5:28,32,44,46; 6:3
Rom 2:7,8,9; 13:7,8
1 Cor 2:9
1 Tim 2:2
Allusions and References by Theophilus that are not quotes or close paraphrases
These are mentioned in the Ante-Nicene Fathers index but are not really even allusions.
Acts 8:17; 11:26; 13:1; 19:6; 29:29-31
2 Cor 1:22
Heb 6:2; 7:1-3
1 Jn 2:20
Theophilus was very well read. He also quotes and refers to Manetho (p.117), Plato (p.116), and a great many Greek philosophers including the Sibyl (p.108-109,110). He also refers to Josephus (p.118).
Tatian - 110-172 A.D.
"Our God did not begin to be in time. He alone is without beginning, and He Himself is the beginning of all things" Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.4 p.66
"The sun and moon were made for us : how, then can I adore my own servants?" Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.4 p.66
Tatian says the spirits are "material" but not "fleshly". Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.4 p.66 and footnote 7 p.66
"...the Logos Himself also, who was in Him, subsists. And by His simple will the Logos springs forth; and the Logos, not coming forth in vain, becomes the first-begotten work of the Father. Him (the Logos) we know to be the beginning of the world. But He came into being by participation, not by abscission; for what is cut off is separated from the original substance, but that which comes by participation, making its choice of function, does not render him deficient from whom it is taken. For just as from one forth many fires are lighted, but the light of the first torch is not lessened by the kindling of many torches, so the Logos, coming forth from the Logos-power of the Father, has not divested of the Logos-power Him who begat Him. I myself, for instance, talk, and you hear; ..." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.5 p.67
Unlike God, matter has a beginning and is not of equal power with God. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.5 p.67
Stoics say everything will be destroyed, and cycle back to be as it was before. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.6 p.67
The Logos was the "Framer of angels". Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.7 p.67
"And each of these two orders of creatures [men and angels] was made free to act as it pleased, not having the nature of good, which again is with God alone, but is brought to perfection in men through their freedom of choice, in order that the bad man may be justly punished, having become depraved through his own fault, but the just man be deservedly praised for his virtuous deeds, since in the exercise of his free choice he refrained from transgressing the will of God." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.7 p.67
Tatian (later turned heretic) 110-172 A.D. "brought to perfection in men through their freedom of choice, in order that the bad man may be justly punished, having become depraved through his own fault, but the just man be deservedly praised for his virtuous deeds, since in the exercise of this free choice he refrained from transgressing the will of God." 2:67 "And the power of the Logos, having in itself a faculty to foresee future events, not as fated, but as taking place by the choice of free agents..." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.7 p.66-67.
Tatian mentioned 7 planets. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.9 p.69
"We were not created to die, but we die by our own fault. Our free-will has destroyed us; we who were free have become slaves; we have been sold through sin. Nothing evil has been created by God; we ourselves have manifested wickedness; but we, who have manifested it, are able again to reject it." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.11 p.70
None of the demons possess flesh; their structure is spiritual like fire or air. On this account the nature of demons has no place for repentance. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.15 p.71
As a Christian, Tatian taught that should someone wish to conquer demons let him repudiate matter in Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.16 p.72. This might be a foreshadowing of his later apostasy into Gnosticism.
Tatian mentions his teacher, "the most admirable Justin" Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.18 p.73
The heretic Crescens, who had unnatural love and loved money, tried to inflict death on both Justin and Tatian. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.19 p.73
Tatian speaks of men selling themselves to be killed [as gladiators]. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.23 p.75
"You slaughter animals for the purpose of eating their flesh, and you purchase men [gladiators] to supply a cannibal banquet for the soul,..." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.23 p.75
It is not Christians who eat human flesh. Rather, Pelops was said to be a supper for the gods, Kronos devours his children, and Zeus swallows Metis. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.25 p.76
"Why do you divide time, saying that one part is part, and another present, and another future? For how can the future be passing when the present exists? As those who are sailing imagine in their ignorance, as the ship is borne along, that the hills are in motion, so you do not know that it is you who are passing along, but that time [o aion] remains present as long as the Creator wills it to exist." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.26 p.76
"How can I believe one who tells me that the sun is a red-hot mass and the moon an earth? Such assertions are mere logomachies, and not a sober exposition of truth." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.27 p.77
Mention of the historian Herodotus. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.27 p.77
Greeks considered incest with a mother and son unlawful, but the Persian Magi thought it most becoming according to Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.28 p.77
Homosexuality: "paederasty is condemned by the Barbarians, but by the Romans, who endeavour to collect herds of boys like grazing horses, it is honoured with certain privileges." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.28 p.77
Tatian mentions the historian Berosus of Babylon, as a very trustworthy man. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.36 p.80
Trajan says Moses was 400 years older than the Trojan War in Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.39 p.80
Herculeus and Orpheus preceded the Trojan War by one generation according to Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.41 p.81
Tatian says he was born in the land of the Assyrians. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.52 p.81
Tatian (110-172 A.D.) Later left Christianity and became a Gnostic. He mentions God the Father in Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.4 p.66; ch.5 (2 times) p.67; ch.7 p.69
Tatian explicitly said he condemned and ridiculed the Greek gods. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.33 p.79
Tatian maintained an imaginary flesh of Christ, says all sexual connection is impure, and was a violent Encratite heretic. Tatian said "If any one sows to the flesh, of the flesh he shall reap corruption; but he sows to the flesh who is joined to a woman; therefore he who takes a wife and sows in the flesh, of the flesh he shall reap corruption. This is in Hieron's Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (fragment 3) p.82
Tatian had invisible aeons like those of Valentinus, and he denounced marriage as defilement and fornication in Irenaeus' Against Heresies book 1 ch.28. vol.2 p.82
Tatian impiously taught that "let there be light" was a prayer for light according to Origen in De Orat. and Clement of Alexandria fragment (both vol.2 p.82)
Tatian condemned and rejected both marriage and eating meat according to Hieron in Against Jovinus book 1 ch.3. vol.2 p.82
Tatian was the chief of the Encratites and rejected drinking wine. Fragments 10,11 vol.2 p.82-83
Bishop Archelaus of Carrha in Mesopotamia [280 A.D.] classifies Tatian with Marcion, Sabellius and other heretics. Fragment 12 vol.2 p.83
Irenaeus mentions that Tatian was the first who started the idea that Adam never went to heaven. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.23.8 p.457
Bible Quotes from Tatian
Psalm 8:5 (one-half)
John 1:5 (one-half)
John 4:24 (one-half)
Titus 1:12 (one-half)
Compared to many other writers, Tatian does not quote scripture much. He relies more on Greek philosophical arguments.
Allusions and References in Tatian's Address to the Greeks that are not quotes or close paraphrases
Genesis 1:1 p.67
Matthew 13:44 p.77
Romans 1:20 p.66
Ephesians 6:13,14,17 p.72
1 Corinthians 2:14,15
These are mentioned in the Ante-Nicene Fathers index but are not really even allusions.
1 Corinthians 10:16
1 Corinthians 15:44
1 Peter 2:17
The Diatessaron of Tatian - to 172 A.D.
Some late accretions in The Diatessaron p.38
The Diatessaron has the following preserved manuscripts: Arabic (Borgian), Armenian manuscript, Syriac Peshitta, Curetonian Syriac, Sinaitic Syriac, and Vatican. p.38
Manuscript notes on The Diatassaron are on p.35
Everything was made by his [the Word's] hand, and without him not even one existing thing was made. The Diatessaron (-172 A.D.) section 1 p.43. This might have been written prior to Tatian becoming an Encratite Gnostic.
The angel came and spoke to Elizabeth and Mary. The Diatessaron (-172 A.D.) section 1 p.43
Jesus was born of a virgin as Matthew 1:23 and Luke 1:35 Tatian's Diatessaron (-172 A.D.) section 1 p.43,44,45
The Diatessaron says the disciples worshipped Jesus, as Matthew 14:33 does. The Diatessaron section 19 p.73
The Diatessaron section 19 p.74 mentions God as the Father at least four times.
The Diatassaron changes a saying of Jesus on divorce in The Diatessaron section p.57 ("makes it lawful for her to commit adultery"), but it was OK in The Diatessaron section 25 p.83
The blind man worshipped Jesus as in John 9:38 The Diatessaron section 36 p.99
Tatian's Diatessaron (-172 A.D.) section 42 p.109 mentions Noah's flood in quoting Matthew 24:37-29.
No man knows the hour of Christ's return, not even the son, only the Father as in Mark 13:32. The Diatessaron section 42 p.109.
Jesus rose from the dead; His body was no longer there, and He later appeared to Mary, Peter, and others. The Diatessaron sections 53 p.125-126
Jesus ascended to heaven as Luke 24:50-51 says. The Diatessaron section 55 p.129
The Diatessaron (c.172 A.D.) section 55 p.128 for Matthew 28:20 mentions God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Alexander of Cappadocia - 170-233-251 A.D. - not started
Athenagoras - 177 A.D.
Athenagoras was an Athenian, who presented his Pleas for Christians to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Aurelius Commodus in 177 A.D. p.129
Athenagoras was a smooth defender. p.130
Athenagoras said there were three charges against Christians, atheism, cannibalism (Thyestean feasts), and incest (Oedipean intercourse.) A Plea for Christians ch.3 p.130
While even some Greeks taught there was no God, Christians do believe in God, but just one. A Plea for Christians ch.3 p.130-131
Athenagoras (177 A.D.) said that like Christians, even some Greek poets said there is only one God. A Plea for Christians ch.5,6 p.131
Quotes from Plato and Aristotle. A Plea for Christians ch.6 p.131
Mention of Socrates. A Plea for Christians ch.8 p.132
Proof that polytheism is absurd. A Plea for Christians ch.8 p.132
Athenagoras (177 A.D.) taught that Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 43:10,11; 66:1 show that there is only one God. A Plea for Christians ch.9 p.133
Athenagoras mentions God the Father four times in chapter 10 of A Plea for Christians (177 A.D.) p.133
The Holy Spirit is mentioned as an effluence of God, flowing from Him, and returning back again like a beam of the sun. A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133
"Nor let any one think it ridiculous that God should have a Son. For though the poets, in their fictions, represent the gods as no better than men, our mode of thinking is not the same as theirs concerning either God the Father or the Son. But the Son of God is the Logos of the Father, in idea and in operation; for after the pattern of Him and by Him were all things made, the Father and the Son being one. ..." A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133
Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians (177 A.D.) ch.10 p.133 speaks about the logos, as well as on ch.12 p.134, ch.24 p.141, ch.30 p.145
Trinity: "Who, then, would not be astonished to hear men who speak of God the Father, and of God the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and who declare both their power in union and their distinction in order, called atheists? Nor is our teaching in what relates to the divine nature confined to these points; but we recognize also a multitude of angels and ministers,..." Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians (177 A.D.) ch.10 p.133
Trinity: "that they know God and His Logos, what is one oneness of the Son with the Father, what the communion of the Father with the Son, what is the Spirit, what is the unity of these three, the Spirit, the Son, the Father, and their distinction in unity;" A Plea for Christians ch.12 p.134
"The Framer and Father of this universe does not need blood, nor the odour of burnt-offerings, nor the fragrance of flowers and incense, forasmuch as He is Himself perfect fragrance," Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.13 p.135
It is "exceedingly silly" to charge Christians with not believing in the same gods, as our accusers do not even agree among themselves as to which gods should be worshipped. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.14 p.135
"but the world was not created because God needed it; for God is Himself everything to Himself," Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.16 p.136
Poets confess that the polytheist gods have been created. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.18 p.137
The Stoics say that all will be burned up and the world will receive another beginning. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.19 p.138
Athenagoras describes the bloodthirstiness, immoral, getting wounded, and dying. A Plea for Christians ch.20-21 p.138-139
Athenagoras shows the inconsistency of those who say these are just symbolic. A Plea for Christians ch.22 p.139-140
The Greek Zeus is even younger than the Cretans, as proved by the legend that the Cretans stole the young Zeus away to hide him from his father. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.23 p.141
Trinity: "For, as we acknowledge a God, and a Son his Logos, and a Holy Spirit, united in essence, - the Father, the Son, the Spirit, because the Son is the Intelligence, Reason, Wisdom of the Father, and the Spirit an effluence, as light from fire;" Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.24 p.141
Athenagoras 177 A.D. "Just as with men, who have freedom of choice as to both virtue and vice (for you would not either honour the good or punish the bad, unless and vice and virtue were in their own power" A Plea for Christians ch.24 p.142
Athenagoras (177 A.D.) in A Plea for Christians ch.24 p.142 said that some angels fell into impure love of virgins and were subjugated by the flesh. .. "Of these lovers of virgins, therefore, were begotten those who are called giants." [Genesis 6:1-4]. The souls of the giants are the demons that inhabit the world. Ch.25 p.142.
"But God, being perfectly good, is eternally doing good." Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.26 p.143
Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "When too, a tender and susceptible soul, which has no knowledge or experience of sounder doctrines, and is unaccustomed to contemplate truth, and to consider thoughtfully the Father and Maker of all things, gets impressed with false opinions respecting itself, then the demons who hover about matter, greedy of sacrificial odours and the blood of victims, and ever ready to lead men into error, avail themselves of these delusive movements of the souls of the multitude; and taking possession of their thoughts, cause to flow into the mind empty visions as if coming from the idols and the statues; ..." A Plea for Christians ch.27 p.143
Athenagoras: Both Herodotus and Alexander learned from the Egyptian priests at Heliopolis that the gods had been men. A Plea for Christians ch.28 p.143
The Egyptian Horus, son of Osiris, was Apollo to the Greeks. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.28 p.143
The Egyptian Osiris is the Greek Dionysius. Both were cut to pieces. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.28 p.143
Athenagoras quotes Callimachus' Hymn to Jupiter 8 sq., "The Cretans always lie; for they, O king, Have built a tomb to thee who are not dead." The last part is equivalent to Titus 1:12b, but this is a different source. A Plea for Christians ch.29 p.145
Mention that Heraclitus and Democritus were banished from Ephesus and Abdera respectively. Socrates was put to death. A Plea for Christians ch.31 p.145
Immortality, Hell: "...but since we know that God is witness to what we think and what we say both by night and by day, and that He, being Himself light, sees all things in our heart, we are persuaded that when we are removed from the present life we shall live another life, better than the present one, and heavenly, not earthly, ... or, falling with the rest, a worse one and in fire; for God has not made us as sheep or beasts of burden, a mere by-work, and that we should perish and be annihilated." Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.31 p.146
God is free from all change. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.31 p.146
Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "But we are so far rom practicing promiscuous intercourse, that it is not lawful among us to indulge even a lustful look." and then quotes Matthew 5:28 A Plea for Christians ch.32 p.146
The kiss of salutation, if given to the opposite sex a second time for pleasure, is sin.Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.32 p.146
Athenagoras said depriving himself of his first wife, even though she be dead, is a cloaked adulterer. A Plea for Christians ch.34 p.147
Homosexuality: Athenagoras (177 A.D.) spoke of how bad it was that in that culture even males committed shocking abominations with males. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.34 p.147
Some Christians own slaves, but even their slaves would not invent the lie that their Christian masters were murderers. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.35 p.147
Women who use drugs to induce an abortion commit murder, and will have to give an account to God. Athenagoras in A Plea for Christians ch.35 p.147
God Almighty can recompose our resurrected body, regardless of if someone were eaten by wild animals or other people. Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.4 p.151
"The discourse in defense of the truth is inferior in nature and force, for the refutation of falsehood is less important than the establishment of truth; and second in order of it employs its strength against those who hold false opinions, and false opinions are an aftergrowth from another sowing and from degeneration. But, notwithstanding all this, it is often placed first, and sometimes is found more useful, because it removes and clears away beforehand the disbelief ..." Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.11 p.154
People often have children to comfort themselves and hoping to immortalize the mortal. Athenagoras on The Resurrection of the Dead ch.12 p.155
Immortality: Hell: God made man for Himself, ... I suppose, and birds, and fishes, or, to speak more generally all irrational creatures, God has assigned such a life as that; but to those who bear upon them the image of the Creator Himself, and are endowed with understanding, and blessed with a rational judgment, the Creator has assigned perpetual duration,..." Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.12 p.155
Each man gets a reward or punishment at the end of his human existence.Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.14 p.156
Because young children who have nothing bad yet die, this proves that the resurrection is not primarily for judgment, but for the purpose of God in forming people.Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.14 p.156
Understanding and reason are possessed by people, not just their soul.Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.15 p.157
But since vanity (futility) is excluded from the works of God, then not only is there an eternal duration of the soul, but also the body.Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.15 p.157
Athenagoras "namely that, in the language of the apostle, 'this corruptible (and dissoluble) must put on incorruption.' In order that those who were dead, heaving been made alive by the resurrection,..." [1 Cor 15:54a] The Resurrection of the Dead ch.18 p.159
Homosexuality: Some evil people despise divine things, breaks the laws, commits outrage against boys and women alike, razes cities unjustly, burns house with their inhabitants, ....Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.19 p.160
A soul, apart from the body, would have no dread of famine, disease. It is absurd to attach passions to just the soul and not the entire person.Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.21 p.161
A soul, apart from the body, would not be commanded to be moral, or honor parents.Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.22 p.161
Souls do not produce souls.Athenagoras in The Resurrection of the Dead ch.22 p.161
Quotes by Athenagoras
Mt 5:28 (p.146)
Mt 5:44-46 (p.134)
Mt 19:9 (p.147)
Luke 6:27,28,32,34 (p.134
1 Cor 15:32b (p.159)
1 Cor 15:54a (p.159)
1 Tim 2:1a; 2:2b (p.148)
Tt 1:12b (p.145)
Allusions and References by Athenagoras that are not quotes or close paraphrases
Mt 22:39 (p.146)
These are mentioned in the Ante-Nicene Fathers index but are not really even allusions.
1 Cor 15:38,44
1 Tim 3:2; 5:9
Hegesippus -170-180 A.D. - not started
Hegesippus (c.170 A.D.) "James the Lord's brother, succeeds to the government of the Church, in conjunction with the apostle. He has been universally called the Just, from the days of the Lord down to the present time.... He alone, I say, was wont to go into the temple: and he used to be found kneeling on his knees, begging forgiveness for the people - so that the skin of his knees became horny like that of a camels, by reason of his constantly bending the knee in adoration to God, and begging forgiveness for the people." Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, From book 5 ch.1 p.762.
Caius Fragments - c.170 A.D. not started
The Muratorian Canon is dated around 170 A.D. because it mentions the death of Bishop Pius I of Rome (died 157 A.D.) as recent.
The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs - 7/17/180-202 A.D.
Speratus, Nartzalus, Cittinus, Donata, Secunda, and Vestia and others were put to the sword. The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
Speratus said they have not done wrong, paid heed to the Emperor, committed no theft, and pay their taxes. The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
Saturninus the proconsul said the Roman religion is simple: just swear by the genius of the Emperor and pray for his welfare. The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
Speratus said he would like to tell the proconsul about the mystery of simplicity; the proconsul would not hear of it though. The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
Speratus said "I know my Lord, the King of kings and Emperor of all nations." The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
Speratus had in his chest books and epistles of Paul, a just man. The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
The Scillitan Martyr Donata (180-202 A.D.) "Honour to Caesar as Caesar: but fear to God." The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs vol.9 p.285
Satruninus the proconsul said that since this live according to the Christian rite, and the obstinately persisted after being given the opportunity to return to the Roman rite, they would be put to the sword. The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
"all [the Scillitan martyrs] together were crowned with martyrdom; and they reign with the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever." The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) p.285
Irenaeus - wrote 182-188 A.D. - Unfinished
A copy of Irenaeus' Against Heresies was found at Oxyrhynchus (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 405). This copy is dated 205-210 A.D.
Irenaeus who was a disciple of Polycarp. Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.22 p.43
Irenaeus started writing was sent to Rome during the persecution of Septimus Severus in 177 A.D. when he started writing. Irenaeus was finally martyred during the reign of Septimus Severus in 202 A.D. (p.309)
Irenaeus was born between 120 and 140 A.D. (p.310)
Against Heresies was written between 182-188 A.D. (p.312)
"Error, indeed, is never set forth in its naked deformity, lest, being thus exposed, it should at once be detected. But it is craftily decked out in an attractive dress, so as, by its outward form, to make it appear to the inexperience (ridiculous as the expression may seem) more true than the truth itself" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 preface 1 p.315.
After reading some of Valentinus' commentaries, Irenaeus considered it his duty to explain to others, "to exhort them to avoid such an abyss of madness and of blasphemy against Christ." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 preface p.315
Irenaeus said he lived among the Keltae (Celts), and he was not an eloquent man. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 preface p.316
The heretic Valentinus taught there were 30 aeons. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.1 p.317
The Gnostics taught that there were 12 key aeons, based on The Lord being twelve years old when He disputed with the teachers of the law, and there are twelve apostles. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3:2 p.319
Irenaeus quotes 1 Corinthians 1:18 as being by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3:5 p.320
Irenaeus paraphrases Galatians 6:14, saying "glory in anything save" vs. "glory save" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3 p.320
Gnostics claimed the Father is the demiurge, and the Demiurge imagined himself to be God alone. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.5.1,4 p.322-323
Gnostics though that "animal men" were established by their works, while Gnostics have perfect knowledge. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.6.2 p.324
Gnostics taught the Spirit of Christ was taken away when Jesus was before Pilate. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.7.2 p.325
Gnostics, "by transferring passages, and dressing them up anew,...succeed in deluding many through their wicked art in adapting the oracles of the Lord to their opinions. Their manner of acting is just as if one, when a beautiful image of a king has been constructed by some skillful artist out of precious jewels, should then take this likeness of the man all to pieces, should re-arrange the gems, and so fit them together as to make them into the form of a dog or of a fox, and even that put poorly executed; and should then maintain and declare that this was the beautiful image of the king which the skillful artist constructed,..." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.8.1 p.326
Gnostics claim the 12-year old girl Jesus raised from the dead was a type of the goddess Achamoth. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.8.2 p.327
Even Gnostics acknowledge that John, the disciple of the Lord, wrote John 1:1,2. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.8.5 p.328
Quotes John 1:14 as by John. Irenaeus Against Heresies book1 ch.8.5 p.328-329
Irenaeus quotes ten verses of Homer in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.9.4 p.330
Trinity: "The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: [She believes] in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion [death], and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and his [future] manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father 'to gather all things in one,' and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, ..." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.2 p.330.
"As I have already observed, the Church, having received this preaching and this faith, although scattered throughout the whole world, yet, as if occupying but one house, carefully preserves it. She also believes these points [of doctrine] just as if she had but one soul, and one and the same heart, and she proclaims them, and teaches them, and hands them down, with perfect harmony, as if she possessed only one mouth. For, although the languages of the world are dissimilar, yet the import of the tradition is one and the same. For the Churches which have been planted in Germany do not believe or hand down anything different, nor do those in Spain, nor those in Gaul, nor those in the East, nor those in Egypt, nor those in Libya, nor those which have been established in the central regions of the world. But as the sun, that creature of God, is one and the same throughout the whole world, so also the preaching of the truth shineth everywhere, and enlightens all men that are willing to come to a knowledge of the truth. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.2 p.331
Irenaeus details the beliefs of the Valentinians. A dyad, or two-fold being is called Arrhetus (unspeakable) and Sige (silence). It produced Pater and Aletheia. From the Tetrad came Logos and Zoe, Anthropos and Ecclesia to form the Ogdoad (8-part pantheon). Zoe and Logos produced ten powers. Horos and Bythos divide the create aeons from the uncreated father and uncreated mother respectively. Anthropos and Ecclesia produced 12 powers. One of these 12 fell, and produced the rest of the universe. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.11.1 p.332
The Gnostic Secundus adds to Valentinus that the Ogdoad has a right-hand tetrad of light and a left-hand tetrad or darkness. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.11.2 p.332
The Gnostic Ptolemy says Bythos has two consorts/affections, a female called Ennoea and a male called Thelesis. They had relations and produced Monogenes and Alethia. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.12.1 p.323
Gnostics would exclaim "Iu, Iu, Pheu, Pheu. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch 11.4 p.332 and ch.15.4 p.340
The Gnostic Colorbasus disagreed that the 8 aeons were produced gradually, but they were all created at once by Propator and his Ennoea. He also says that Anthropos and Ecclesia were not produced from Logos and Zoe, but Logos and Zoe were produced from Anthropos and Ecclesia. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.12.2 p.333
Marcus combined Gnosticism with sleight-of-hand magic. He would consecrate communion cups where he gave them a purple and reddish color, saying the Charis dropped her own blood into the cup. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.13 p.334
Irenaeus thinks Marcus was probably demon-possessed. He devotes himself especially to women, especially those well-bred, elegantly attired, or of great wealth. "Adorn thyself as a bride who is expecting her bridegroom, that though mayest be what I am, and I what thou art. Establish the germ of light in thy nuptial chamber. Receive from me a spouse, and become receptive of him, while though art received by him." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.13.3 p.334
Marcus would say, "Behold Charis has descended upon thee; open thy mouth and prophesy;" then engaging, for the second time, in certain invocations, so as to astound his deluded victim, he says to her, 'Open thy mouth, speak whatsoever occurs to thee, and thou shalt prophesy." She then, vainly puffed up and elated by these words, and greatly excited in soul by the expectation that it is herself who is to prophesy, .. and idly as well as impudently utters some nonsense as it happens to occur to her, such as might be expected from one heated by an empty spirit." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.13.3 p.334-335
Marcus claimed he alone was the matrix and receptable of the Sige of Colorbasus. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.14.1 p.336
Marcus the Gnostic was big on the sounds of words and letters. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.13.2 p.336-337
Mention of the production of the duodecad. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.16.1 p.341
"I well know, my dear friend, that when thou hast read through all this, thou wilt indulge in a hearty laugh over this their inflated wise folly! But those men are rally worthy of being mourned over,... But as many as separate from the Church, and give heed to such old wives' fables as these, are truly self-condemned." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.16.3 p.341
Irenaeus quotes part of Titus 3:10 saying it is by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.16.3 p.341
Irenaeus quotes 2 John 10,11 saying it is by John, the disciple of the Lord in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.16.3 p.342.
Heretics have been instigated by Satan to deny "that baptism which is regeneration to God, and thus to a renunciation of the whole [Christian] faith." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.21.1 p.345
Mention of the True God as the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.22.1 p.347; book 2 ch.1.1 p.359; ch.1.4 p.361; book 2 ch.1.5 p.362; book 3 ch.6.1 p.418
Quote of Acts 8:9-11,20,21,23 (Simon the Sorcerer) as written by Luke. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.23.1 p.347
Details of the beliefs of Simon the Sorcerer. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.1-3 p.347-348
Mt 18:12 allusion to the lost sheep. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.23.2 p.238
Mention of the Gnostics Saturninus and Basilides. They believe marriage and reproduction are from Satan, they abstain from animal food. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.24 p.348-349
The Gnostic Basilides taught that Simon of Cyrene was crucified in Jesus' place. He also taught that salvation belongs to the soul alone, not the body. He believed in 365 heavens. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.24.4 p.349
The Gnostic Carpocrates taught that Jesus was not born of a virgin. The only difference of Jesus as that his soul was steadfast and pure. His followers practiced magic.. They believe in transmigration from body to body (reincarnation). Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.25.1-3 p.350-351
The female Gnostic Marcellinus branded her disciples on the right earlobe. They honor images and claim they have an image that Pilate made of Jesus. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.25.6 p.351
The Gnostic Cerinthus taught that Jesus was not born of a virgin, but was more righteous, prudent, and wise than other men. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.26.1 p.351-352
The Ebionites believed the true God made the universe, but also denied the virgin birth of Christ. They accepted only the Gospel of Matthew. (Others say a shortened form of Matthew.) The Ebionites rejected Paul as an apostate from the law. They practiced circumcision and adore Jerusalem as the house of God. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.26.2 p.352.
The Nicolatians [Nicolaitanes], were followers of Nicolas who was one of the seven ordained deacons. (Other early writers say different). Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.26.3 p.352
[The proto-Gnostic] Cerdo learned his heresy from Simon. Cerdo lived in Rome during the time of Hyginus, who was the ninth bishop of Rome. He taught that the law and the prophets were not from the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. The God of the Old Testament was righteous, but Jesus was benevolent. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.27.1 p.352
Marcion of Pontus succeeded Cerdo, and said the God of the Old Testament was evil, took delight in war, and contradicted Himself. But Jesus came from the Father who is above the [Old Testament] God of this world. Salvation is only for those who learn his doctrines. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.27.2-4 p.352-353
The Encratites (meaning self-controlled) came from Saturninus and Marcion. Encratites were against marriage, and some among them were against animal food [meat]. Tatian, a hearer of Justin [Martyr] was the one who introduced this blasphemy. Tatian was novel in denying the salvation of Adam. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.28.1 p.353
Basilides and Carpocrates taught promiscuity, polygamy, and eating meat sacrificed to idols did not matter to God. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.28.2 p.353
The Ophites said that Bythus had a certain light. His Ennoea produced the son of man. The first descendant of a mother was called Ialdabaoth. Ialdabaoth produced a woman named Eve. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.30.1-7 p.354-356
The Ophites affirm that not even many of Jesus' disciples were aware that the spirit of Christ went into Jesus. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.30.13 p357
The Cainites said they are related to the good guys: Cain, Esau, Korah, the Sodomites, and Judas. They claim the creator of heaven and earth was an evil being named Hystera. They, like Carpocrates, say that men cannot be saved until they go through all kinds of experience, including abominable actions. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.31.1-2 p.358
Quote of John 1:3 by John the Apostle of the Lord. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.2.5 p.361-362
Near quote of Ephesians 4:6 as by Paul the apostle. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.5 p.362
The Valentinians thought Bythus was the father of all. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.4.1 p.363
Calvinistic: "It is not seemly, however, to say of Him who is God over all, since He is free and independent, that He was a slave to necessity, or that anything takes place with His permission, yet against His desire; otherwise they will make necessity greater and more kingly than God, since that which has the most power is superior to all." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.5.2 p.365
Those who never heard: "And on this account all things have been [by general consent] placed under the sway of Him who is styled the Most High, and the Almighty. By calling upon Him, even before the coming of our Lord, men were saved both from most wicked spirits, and from all kinds of demons, and from every sort of apostate power." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.6.2 p.365
Mention of eternal fire for the devil and his angels. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.7.3 p.367
Linus, bishop of Rome, was mentioned in Paul's letter to Timothy. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.3 p.416
Clement, bishop of Rome saw the apostles in person. Mention of Clement's Letter to the Corinthians. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.3 p.416
Irenaeus mentions the\ martyr Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, who was instructed by the apostles. Polycarp wrote a letter to the Philippians. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.4 p.416
Once when John was bathing in Ephesus, he saw the Cerinthus within, and John rushed out without even bathing. John said, "Let us fly, lest even the bath-house fall down, because Cerinthus, the enemy of truth, is within." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.4 p.416
"And Polycarp himself replied to Marcion, who met him on one occasion, and said, 'Dost thou know me?' 'I do know thee, the first-born of Satan.' Such was the horror which the apostles and their disciples had against holding even verbal communication with any corrupters of the truth." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.4 p.416
John lived in Ephesus until the time of the Emperor Trajan according to Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.4 p.416
Irenaeus mentions Cerdo, his successor Marcion, Valentinus, Simon the Sorcerer, his disciple Menander in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.4 p.417
Irenaeus writing 182-188 A.D. writes, "It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. ... the 'pillar and ground' of the Church is the Gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.11.8
Irenaeus, disciple of Polycarp and bishop of Lyons (wrote 177-202 A.D.) 1:347 "they [unbelievers] despise the workmanship of God, speaking against their own salvation.", 1:455 "[God] did indeed show Himself to be long-suffering in the matter of the correction of man and the probation of all" 1:456 "indicating that eternal fire was not originally prepared for man, but for him [Satan] who beguiled man, and caused him to offend" Irenaeus Against Heresies 1:22.
Irenaeus went from Asia Minor to Lyons in Gaul, and later became bishop of Lyons after Pothinus was martyred. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.1 p.399
"...the world will be judged in righteousness by the man Jesus' whereof He hath given assurance by raising Him from the dead." Irenaeus in Against Heresies book 3 ch12.8 p.433
Bodily resurrection of Jesus: Irenaeus in Against Heresies 5:7:1. "In the same manner, therefore, as Christ did rise in the substance of flesh and pointed out to His disciples the mark of the nails and the opening in His side (now these are the tokens of that flesh which rose from the dead) so "shall He also," it is said, "raise us up by His own power." Is there much ambiguity here?
"But that He (Jesus) is Himself in His own right, beyond all men who ever lived, God, and Lord, and King Eternal, and the Incarnate Word, proclaimed by all the prophets, the apostles, and by the Spirit Himself, may be seen by all who have obtained to even a small portion of the truth." (Irenaeus Against Heresies 3:19:2)
"Christ, who was called the Son of God before the ages, ... in order that He might cleanse us through His blood, ... presenting us as pure sons to His Father." Irenaeus fragment 39 p.575
The gospel of Matthew was written to the Jews. It stressed that Christ was descended from David, and that is why Matthew started with the genealogy. Fragment 29 from Irenaeus p.573.
Irenaeus knew of Josephus. Fragment 32 p.573
Irenaeus in Fragment 46 also says the god of this world is Satan as in 2 Corinthians 4:4.
Irenaeus "Father who is in heaven" (Against Heresies book 2 ch.9 p.369
Irenaeus says "Mark says" and quotes Mark 1:1 in Against Heresies book 3 ch.16 p.441
Irenaeus quotes Hebrews 13:15 indicating it was by Paul in Fragment 37 p.574
Irenaeus quotes the Lord's disciple in his "letter", quoting 2 John 7,8 and then 1 John 4:1,2. Irenaeus says it was the same who wrote (and he quotes John 1:14 in Against Heresies book 3 ch16 p.443.
Eternal punishment: Irenaeus mentions those who disallow (Adam's) salvation are shutting themselves out from life for ever, in that they do not believe that the sheep which had perished has been found. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.23 p.457.
Irenaeus quotes 1 Peter 2:16 and says it is by Peter in Against Heresies book 4 ch.16 p.482
"It was for this reason, too, that the Lord descended into the regions beneath the earth, preaching His advent there also and [declaring] the remission of sins received by those who believe in Him. Now all those believed in Him who had hope towards Him, that is, those who proclaimed His advent, and submitted to his dispensations, the righteous men, the prophets, and the patriarchs,... For 'all men come short of the glory of the God,' and are not justified of themselves, but by the advent of the Lord," Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.27.1 p.499
"He was Himself the Word of God made the Son of man, receiving from the Father the power of remission of sin; since He was a man, and since He was God, in order that since as man He suffered for us,... He has destroyed the handwriting of our debt, and fastened it to the cross" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.27.3 p.545
Irenaeus mentions that John wrote the Apocalypse [Revelation] in Against Heresies (182-188 A.D.) book 5 ch.26 p.554, ch.28 p.557, and ch.30 p.558
Irenaeus quotes Ignatius' Letter to the Romans in Against Heresies book 5 ch.28 p.557
Irenaeus quotes Paul, writing in Galatians, and quote Galatians 2:1-2 Against Heresies book 3 ch.13 p.437
Irenaeus quotes, John, the disciple of the Lord, in his gospel, and quotes John 1:1-2, 10-14. Against Heresies book 5 ch.18 p.546.
Irenaeus quotes extensively from Acts, saying it was the account of Luke, the inseparable traveling companion of Paul in Against Heresies book 3 ch.14 p.437
Irenaeus mentions Paul writing and quotes 2 Timothy 4:10-11. He also mentions Paul writing to the Colossians and quotes Col 4:14 in Against Heresies book 3 ch.14 p.438.
Irenaeus quotes 1 Th 5:23 and says this by "the Apostle." in Against Heresies book 5 ch.6 p.532
Irenaeus mentions Luke's Gospel in Against Heresies book 3 ch.14 p.438 and ch.15 p.439
Irenaeus mention Paul saying and quotes Ephesians 4:5-6 in Against Heresies book 4 ch.32 p.506.
Irenaeus quotes "the Apostle Paul" for 1 Corinthians 1:18. Against Heresies book 1 ch.3 p.320 and 1 Corinthians 15:11 in Against Heresies book 3 ch.13 p.435-436
Irenaeus quotes Titus 3:10 and says it was by Paul in Against Heresies book 3 ch.3 p.416
Irenaeus mentions these as by Paul and quotes 1 Cor 2:14; 1 Tim 6:4,5; Col 2:18; Rom 10:8; Php 3:10 in fragment 36 p.574.
Irenaeus quotes 2 Cor 2:15-16 and says this is by the apostle in the Second to the Corinthians in Against Heresies book 4 ch.28 p.501-502.
Irenaeus mentions that John the Lord's disciple wrote the Apocalypse and quotes Revelation 21:2; 22:11-15, 21:1-6 in Against Heresies book 5 ch.35 p.566.
Irenaeus mentions what "the apostle" wrote and quotes Romans 8:19, etc. Against Heresies book 5 ch.32 p.561
In Against Heresies book 4 ch.13:4, Irenaeus quotes Philippians 4:18, prefacing it with "As Paul also says to the Philippians"
1 Pet 1:8 quoted by Peter Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 chapter 7 section 2
Strange quote of Irenaeus p.483
Irenaeus quotes the Shepherd of Hermas as scripture. p.488
The apostle in the Epistle to the Thessalonians and quotes 2 Th 1:6-10. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.28 p.501
2 Thess 2:11 by the apostle in 2 Thessalonians. Against Heresies book 4 ch.30 p.503
2 Thess 1:6-7 by Paul in Against Heresies book 4 ch.32 p.509
"It was for this reason, too, that the Lord descended into the regions beneath the earth, preaching His advent there also, and [declaring] the remission of sins received by those who believe in Him. Now all those believed in Him who had hope towards Him, that is, those who proclaimed His advent, and submitted to His dispensations, the righteous men, the prophets, and the patriarchs, to whom He remitted sins in the same way as He did to us,..." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.27 p.499.
Polycrates, Bishop pf Ephesus c.196 A.D.
Polycrates presided of the Synod of 196 A.D. that discussed when to observe Easter. P.773
Polycrates mentions that John, who reclined on Jesus' breat, was buried in Ephesus. Polycrates Fragment p.773
Polycrates mentions Polycarp, bishop and martyr at Smyrna. Polycrates Fragment p.773
Polycrates mentions Melito the eunuch and is buried in Sardis. Polycrates Fragment p.774
Clement of Alexandria 193-217/220 A.D. - Unfinished
While we have preserved many works of Clement of Alexandria, there are many more works of his which have been lost. They include: Treatise on the prophet Amos, On Providence, Treatise on Easter, On Evil-Speaking, Discussion on Fasting, Exhortation to Patience; Ecclesiastical Canon; Different Terms. He also mentions 13 other works he ha d either written or planned to write. The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.2 p.169.
There was a Greek legend that the city of Thebes in Greece was once protected by being surrounded by walls through the use of music. Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.171
The brood of vipers Jesus referred to were hypocrites and unbelievers, not necessarily reprobate. Because if one of those were willing to repent and follow the Word, they would become a man of God. Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.172
Clement called Christ "the new song". Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.173
Clement of Alexandria was a skillful debater against Greek polytheism. Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.2 p.175
Athena/Athene was called Pallas because after Dionysius was cut up she had taken his vibrating heart. Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.2 p.16
Clement says that some Greek philosophers came close to the truth when they said about the Egyptians, "If you believe them to be gods, do not mourn or bewail them; and if you mourn and bewail them, do not any more regard them as gods." Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.2 p177
Homosexuality: Hinduism: Some Greek poets called Zeus a nefarious scoundrel. He had "adulteries of all sorts, and debauching of boys. For your gods did not even abstain from boys,... Let such gods as these be worshipped by your wives, and let them pray that their husband be such as these - so intemperate; that emulating them in the same practices, they may be like the gods. Such gods let your body be trained to worship, that they may grow up to be men with the accursed likeness of fornication on them received from the gods." Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.2 p.180
Zeus did not know that Lycaon the Arcadian had killed his own son, Nictimus and served him as food to Zeus. Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.3 p.181
But Zeus did not do anything recently; perhaps is he just growing old? Clement of Alexandria Exhortation to the Heathen ch.3 p.181
Greeks would make fun of Egyptians for worshipping cats and other strange creatures. "Such, then, are their gods; such are they also who make mockery of the gods, or rather mock and insult themselves. How much better are the Egyptians, who in their towns and villages pay divine honours to the irrational creatures, than the Greeks, who worship such gods as these." Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.3 p.182
The people of Troad worship mice, because the gnawed the strings of their enemies' bows. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.3 p.182
While Romans typically did not practice human sacrifice, Erechtheus of Attica and Marius the Roman sacrificed their daughters. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.3 p.183
The Scythians worshipped sabers, the Arabs stones, and the Persians rivers. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.184
Sesostris the Egyptian king made a statue of Osiris with a mixture of gold, silver, lead, tin, and Egyptian stones, including sapphire, hematite, emerald, and topaz. They ground all the materials together and made the statue from that. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.185
"Beauty blighted by vice is loathsome. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.185
Mention of a true saying of Sibyl the prophetess. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.185-186
Why do Romans honor the goddess Fortune by putting an image of her in the bathroom? Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.186
Greeks made pictures and statues of goddesses and gods using humans as models. So the picture of the same idol, in different locations, looks different. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.186
Ceux, son of Eolus, was called Zeus by his wife Alcyone. Her husband called her Hera. Ptolemy IV was called Dionysus. Alexander wanted to be considered a son of the Egyptian god Ammon, and have horns on his statues. Menecraetes the doctor took the name of Zeus. The grammarian Alexarchus wanted to be known as the sun-god. Nocagors of Zela was called Hermes and used to dress as Hermes. He also cites various other people were worshiped as god. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.186
"Why, let me ask, have you forsaken heaven to pay divine honour to earth? What else is gold, or silver, or steel, or iron, or brass, or ivory, or precious stones?" Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.188
Xenocrates of Chalcedon indicated that the planets are seven gods, and the universe is an eighth god. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.5 p.190-191
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) distinguished between astronomy and astrology, and taught that astrology was wrong. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.6 p.191
Mention of Xenophon not writing more of the truth, because he did not want to have to drink a cup of poison as Socrates had to do. Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.6 p.192
Clement of Alexandria quotes 1 Timothy 4:8, saying it was by Paul in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196
Mention of Philippians 4:5 as by the apostle of the Lord. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196
Ps 34:8 "Lord is good" (almost all manuscripts) vs. "Christ is God" (one letter difference in Greek. Clement of Alexandria misread this in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196.)
After Alexander of Macedon died, Theocritus said, "Me, keep up your hearts as long as you see the gods dying sooner than men." Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.6 p.199
Clement of Alexandria mentions God the Father in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.6 p.199 two times, ch.10 p.202, ch.11 p.203 (5 times) and The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.209-210 (4 times)
Clement of Alexandria (wrote 193-217/220 A.D.) say that Lot's wife being turned to a pillar of salt for her love of Sodom can be considered a metaphor for people being turned into a state of insensibility by sin. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.201.
Homosexuality: Clement of Alexandria mentions of sins of adultery and "thou shalt not seduce boys" in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.202
"The first man, when in Paradise, sported free, because he was the child of God; but when he succumbed to pleasure... grew old in disobedience; and by disobeying his Father, dishonoured God." Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.11 p.202-203
Hell: "for sin is eternal death." Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.11 p.204
"The Lord is a hierophant" (Cultural expression) Clement of Alexandria in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.11 p.204
The Lord is a hierophant, and seals while illuminating him who is initiated and presents to the Father him who believes, to be kept safe for ever." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.11 p.205
Three things in man: habits, actions, and passions. The Instructor book 1 ch.1 p.209
Calls God's Word [Jesus] the Tutor, Paedagogue, or Instructor. The Instructor book 1 ch.1-2 p.209
Healing of our passions. The Instructor book 1 ch.1 p.209
He [Jesus] God in the form of man, stainless, the minister of His Father's will, the Word who is God, who is in the Father, who is at the Father's right hand, and with the form of God is God. The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210
He is wholly free from human passions; wherefore also He alone is judge, because He alone is sinless. As far, however, as we can, let us try to sin as little as possible." The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210
Hadst thou not sinned, He would not have uttered these threatenings." The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210
"There is nothing which God cannot do." The Instructor book 1 ch.3 p.211
For the Father Himself loveth you, because ye have loved Me;" The Instructor book 1 ch.3 p.211
"...understanding that the virtue of man and woman is the same. ... marriage an equal yoke.. And those whose life is common, have common graces and a common salvation; common to them are love and training." The Instructor book 1 ch.4 p.211
[in heaven] the sexual desire which divides humanity being removed. The Instructor book 1 ch.4 p.211
Mention of the apostle writing to the Corinthians (1st or 2nd not specified) and quoting 2 Corinthians 11:2. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.213
Clement of Alexandria mentions the apostle writing to the Ephesians and quoting Ephesians 4:13-15. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.213
Clement of Alexandria quotes 1 Thessalonians 2:6-7 by the blessed Paul. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.214
Clement of Alexandria quotes Romans 16:19 by the Apostle in the Epistle to the Romans. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.214
Jesus rose again after His burial, having suffered no harm, like Isaac released from sacrifice. Clement The Instructor book1 ch.6 p.215.
The King, then, who is Christ" The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215
"Father of the Universe." The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215
Isaac was a type of Christ, but Isaac was not sacrificed, he only carried the wood of the sacrifice. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215
"... who have been redeemed from corruption by the blood of our Lord." Clement of Alexandria The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215
Quote of Isaiah 9:6 as referring to Jesus. The Son in the Father, and the Father in the Son." The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215
At the Lord's baptism there was the voice and the dove. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.215
Clement of Alexandria mentions Psalm 82:6 The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.215
"Salvation, accordingly, is the following of Christ: and quotes John 1:4a. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.216
Clement of Alexandria quotes Galatians 3:26-28. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.217
Science: Clement of Alexandria thought that milk is the sweeter and finer part of blood The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.219
The Word Himself shed Hs own blood for us to save humanity. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.220
Clement of Alexandria quotes 1 Peter 2:1-3 as by Peter. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.220
Clement of Alexandria says that Persian noble sons practiced incest and sex with courtesans. The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.223
Clement of Alexandria called Jesus an angel. The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.224
Clement of Alexandria quotes Wisdom 11:24 "For there is nothing which the Lord hates." The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.225
"And God is admitted to be good. God therefore does good. And the Good, in virtue of its being good, does nothing else than do good. Consequently God does all good." The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.225
"Reproach is like the application of medicines, dissolving the callosities of the passions, and purging the impurities of the lewdness of the life; in addition, reducing the excrescences of pride, restoring the patient to the healthy and true state of humanity." The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.225
"Now, the God and Father of our Lord Jesus is good, the Word Himself will again avouch" then quotes Luke 6:35-36. The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.227
Clement falsely says in the Gospel of John Jesus says, "Serpents, brood of vipers." This is actually in Matthew 3:7 and Luke 3:7. The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.229
God assailed people, in order to, if possible, drag them back from their impetuous rush towards death. The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.231
The "ill-starred" Persians marched to Greece with 500,000 men for the reddish-brown dried figs. The Instructor book 2 ch.1 p.237
Clement of Alexandria claimed that rich gluttons emasculated plain bread by straining off the nourishing part of the grain. The Instructor book 2 ch.1 p.237
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says that mixing wine with water is fine and healthy. He then has a lengthy passage on the evils of drunkenness. The Instructor book 2 ch.2 [title On Drinking] p.242-246
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) discussed worldly entertainments with their instruments and proper worship with its. The Instructor book 2 ch.4 p.248-249.
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 5:13-15, 19-22 and Romans 12:8-13 including "warn them who are unruly, comfort the feeble-minded, support the weak, be patient toward all men. ... him that showeth mercy, with cheerfulness. Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love." The Instructor book 3 ch.12 p.294
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And then thou shalt look into the bosom of the Father, whom God the only-begotten Son alone hath declared. And God Himself is love..." Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved? 37 p.601
Church of Christ ""This is our thankful revelry. And even if you wish to sing or play to the harp or lyre, there is no blame. That shalt imitate the righteous Hebrew king in his thanksgiving to God... Confess to the Lord on the harp; play to Him on the psaltery of ten strings. Sing to Him a new song." Clement of Alexandria The Instructor book 2 ch.4 p.249
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "and there is nothing which God cannot do." The Instructor book 1 ch.3 p.210
In the last chapter of The Instructor, Clement of Alexandria composed a hymn to sing. Here is the 2nd verse.
King of saints, Almighty Word; Of the Father highest Lord
Wisdom's head and chief; Assuagement of all grief
Lord of all time and space; Jesus Savior of our race;
Shepherd who does us keep;
Husbandman who tills
Bit to restrain us, Rudder to guide us as You will
Of the all-holy flock celestial wing,
Life that never can decay; Fount of mercy, virtue-sending,
Life august of those who raise
Unto God their hymn of praise, Jesus Christ!
In The Stromata 1:11 Clement of Alexandria asked what the wisdom of this world was that Paul warned us against in 1 Corinthians 3:19-21. He believed the answer was Epicureanism, which deified pleasure, plus every other philosophy that was deficient in recognizing the Creator of all. He felt philosophers had grains of truth that could be learned, for "gold was gold, even in a thief's purse."
Clement of Alexandria (193-217 A.D.) in The Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.468 spoke of "the Holy Trinity."
Clement of Alexandria 193-217 A.D. 2:319 "Now the devil, being possessed of freewill, was able both to repent and to steal;" 2:239 "So in no respect is God the author of evil. But since free choice and inclination originate sins" Stromata 1:17. 2:239 "For to take fever is involuntary; but when one takes fever through his own fault, from excess, we blame him. Inasmuch, then as evil is involuntary, -for no one prefers evil as evil;...such being the case, to free ourselves from ignorance, and from evil and voluptuous choice, and above all, to withhold our assent from those delusive phantasies, depends on ourselves." The Instructor 2:1. 3:319 speaks well of the work Shepherd of Hermas. also last chapter.
"Everything then, which did not hinder a man's choice from being free, He made and rendered auxiliary to virtue," Stromata 7:2
"And how is He Saviour and Lord, if not the Saviour and Lord of all? But He is the Saviour of those who have believed, because of their wishing to know; and the Lord of those who have not believed, till, being enabled to confess him, they obtain the peculiar and appropriate boon which comes by Him." (Stromata 7:2)
Whether man was inclined to worship nature man, demons, or the dead, Jesus showed Himself Lord of all these. (Incarnation 15:3-7)
In The Stromata 6:6 p.490-491 Clement of Alexandria taught that between His death and resurrection Christ preached to the Jews and Gentiles that had already died. 1 Peter 3:19-20 is a key verse he used, along with Matthew 27:52 that shows other dead rose with Christ. Many evangelicals today believe that Christ preached to the dead who had not heard, and still does this today. On the other hand, many other evangelicals do not believe this. If you believe this, that people who never heard will hear after death, you must not ignore Hebrews 10:38-39 and Hebrews 12:25, which shows that there is no second chance after death for those who reject Christ.
Resurrection: "the Son of God - of Him who made the universe - assumed flesh, and was conceived in the virgin's womb as His material body was produced), and subsequently, as was the case, suffered and rose again," Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 6 ch.16 p.509-510
Clement of Alexandria (wrote 193-217/220 A.D.) quotes from Zechariah 3:2 in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.197 and Zechariah 9:9 in The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.213.
Paul wrote 1 Cor 11. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 2 ch.22 p.376
1 Tim 1:9 is scripture. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book4 ch.3 p.410
Eph 5:21-25 by Paul. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book4 ch.8 p.420
John wrote his Gospel. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book5 ch.12 p.463
Philippians by the Apostle Clement of Alexandria Stromata book4 ch.13 p.426
Paul wrote Romans. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book2 ch.22 p.376
Titus Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 4 ch.20 p.432
Acts of the Apostles. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 4 ch.15 p.427
Eph 4:27 scripture. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 3 ch.5 p.450
Apostle wrote to Corinth (2 Cor 3:4. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book
Mt 11:29,30 Clement of Alexandria Stromata book5 ch.5 p.450
Colossians by the Apostle. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.463
Luke wrote Acts Clement of Alexandria Stromata book5 ch.13 p.464
Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) writes, "John the Apostle says" and quotes John 1:18. Stromata book 5 ch.12 p.463
Refers to Clement of Rome. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 5 ch.12 p.4763; book 14 ch.17 p.428
Refers to Barnabas' writing. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 5 ch.10 p.459
Clement of Alexandria answers about those who never heard the Gospel. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 6 ch.6 p.490-491
Preaching of Peter. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.490-491, 510
Apocryphal book. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.552
1 Timothy 6:16 by Paul and 1 John 4:16 by John. Clement of Alexandria Fragment 3 p.575
John wrote the Apocalypse [Revelation] Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.504
Mark wrote Mark. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.574
The Apostle wrote 2 Timothy. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.311
Apostle from 2 Corinthians Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.529
Gospel Luke Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.333
"...Mark, to whom the gospel is ascribed, he being the companion of Peter..." Fragment of Clement of Alexandria in Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History book 2 ch.15.
Clement of Alexandria's Letter to Cassiodorus. Peter wrote 1 Peter, Jude wrote Jude, John wrote 1 John and 2 John. Clement of Alexandria Stromata book p.571,573,574,576-577
Clement of Alexandria mentions that the apostle speaks with the Philippians and quotes Philippians 1:7, 29,30; 2:1,2,17,20,21. Stromata book 14 ch.13
"And in the Gospel according to Matthew, the genealogy which begins with Abraham..." (Clement of Alexandria Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.334
"Now, in the Gospel according to Mark..." Clement of Alexandria in Fragments from Cassiodorus in Comments on the Epistle of Jude p.574.
Clement of Alexandria quotes 2 Thess 3:1-2 and says it was by the Apostle. Stromata book 5 p.448
Clement of Alexandria quotes 2 Corinthians 1:12 and says it is by the apostle in 2 Corinthians. Stromata book 4 ch.16 p.427
Clement of Alexandria quotes Colossians 1:28 and says it is by the Apostle. Stromata book 1 ch.2 p.393
Clement of Alexandria quotes Titus 2:3-5 and says "the apostle says in the Epistle to Titus"
Clement of Alexandria quotes Galatians 3:19,23,24 and says it was by Paul. Stromata book 1 ch.26 p.339
Clement of Alexandria says "the blessed Paul most clearly pointed out..." and quotes 1 Thess 2:6,7 The Instructor book1 ch.6 p.214
Clement of Alexandria quotes 2 Timothy 2:23 and says it was by Paul. Stromata book 5 ch.1 p.445
"Following the Gospel according to John, and in accordance with it, this Epistle also contains the spiritual principle. What therefore he says, 'from the beginning,' the Presbyter explained..." and gives a commentary on 1 John. Clement of Alexandria in Fragments from Cassiodorus Comments on the First Epistle of John p.575.
"The second Epistle of John, which is written to Virgins, is very simple. It was written to a Babylonian lady, by name Electra, and indicates the election of the holy Church." Fragments from Cassiodorus Comments on the Second Epistle of John p.576-577
"And put a ring on his hand." Here is the mystery of the Trinity; which is the seal impressed on those who believe." Clement of Alexandria Fragment 11 p.583
Clement of Alexandria quotes Mark 10:17-31 and says it was by Mark in Who is the Rich Man That Shall be Saved (6) p.592-593
Clement of Alexandria writes "Peter says" and quotes 1 Peter 2:5 in Fragment from Cassiodorus Comments on the First Epistle of Peter p.571.
Clement of Alexandria says, "Jude, who wrote the Catholic Epistle, the brother of the sons of Joseph..." and gives a commentary on Jude. In Fragments from Cassiodorus Comments on the Epistle of Jude p.573
Tertullian 200-240 A.D. - Unfinished
Tertullian's Apology was written from 198-217 A.D. (p.9)
Tertullian's Against Marcion was written 207/208 A.D. (p.6,9)
Tertullian quotes from the Old Testament Septuagint. He probably got his New Testament quotes from the Greek, though Semler thinks he quoted from the Old Latin. [Italic]. p.7
Tertullian died possibly 240 A.D., but probably 220 A.D. He was born around 145-150 A.D.
Tertullian was married. p.18
Marcion came to Rome about 141/142 A.D., and soon after followed Cerdon's heresy. P.18
Criminals often would not deny they were motivated by a sinful disposition, but they would blame that on fate or the stars. Tertullian's Apology ch.1 p.18
Tertullian mentions the Letter to Trajan from Pliny [the Younger]. Tertullian's Apology ch.2 p.18
It is strange that being a Christian is different from every other crime; they are acquitted if they deny, and pronounced guilty if they admit. Tertullian sarcastically asked, why not do this for murderers, incest, or any other vile thing too? Tertullian's Apology ch.2 p.20
Domitian stopped the persecution he had started, "because he had something human in him." Tertullian's Apology ch.5 p.22
Children in Africa were openly sacrificed to Saturn as recently as the consulship of Tiberias. Tertullian's Apology ch.9 p.25
There is a difference between killing others in general and your own parents. Sacrificing old people to Mercury was done in Gaul. Tertullian's Apology ch.9 p.25
Abortion: "In our case, murder being once for all forbidden, we may not destroy even the foetus [fetus] in the womb, while as yet the human being derives blood from other parts of the body for its sustenance. To hinder a birth is merely a speedier man-killing.; nor does it matter whether you take away a life that is born, or destroy one that is coming to the birth. That is a man which is going to be one; you have the fruit already in its seed." Tertullian's Apology ch.9 p.25 (197-217 A.D.)
Christians were forbidden to eat the blood of even animals. Tertullian's Apology ch.9 p.25
Tertullian says that Ctesias relates that Persians had sex with their children. Tertullian's Apology ch.9 p.26
Tertullian mentions Diodorus, Thallus, Cassius Severus, and Cornelius Nepos speak of Saturn, but as a man. Tertullian's Apology ch.9 p.26
Saturn the man dwelt on a city called Saturnia, and Italy was named after him. Tertullian's Apology ch.10 p.27
Tertullian mentions to polytheists that since Saturn and Jove (Jupiter) were born, they once dread the lightnings you put in his hand. Tertullian's Apology ch.11 p.27
Homosexuality: Tertullian rails against ravishers of virgins and boy-polluters. Tertullian's Apology ch.11 p.28
The Greco-Roman gods were guilty of incest and many other crimes. Deify your vilest criminals, if you would please your gods." Tertullian's Apology ch.11 p.28
Tertullian briefly mentions that the Romans installed Simon Magus as a god. Tertullian's Apology ch.11 p.29
Mention of Pindar the poet and the Cynic Varro in Tertullian's Apology ch.14 p.30
Tertullian mentions Pontius Pilate. in Tertullian's Apology ch.21 p.35
"Nero's cruel sword sowed the seed of Christian blood at Rome" in Tertullian's Apology ch.21 p.35-36
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) in An Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.158. "In such wise, therefore, did Daniel predict concerning Him, as to show both when and in what time He was to set the nations free; and how, after the passion of the Christ, that they city had to be exterminated. Then Tertullian spends 3 1/2 pages showing how the years of various kings adds up to the time in Daniel . Tertullian made a mistake and started from the first year of Darius though.
Tertullian says Marcion "labours very hard to destroy the character of those Gospels which are published as genuine and under the name of the apostles, in order, forsooth, to secure for his own Gospel the credit which he takes away from them." Tertullian's Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.3 p.348. Also book 5 ch.2 p.432 and On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.33 p.568
Tertullian (200-220 A.D.) "'praying for all,' even for our personal enemies" On Prayer ch.3 p.682.
Tertullian (200-220/240 A.D.) "Ever if we must be angry, our anger must not be maintained beyond sunset, as the apostle admonishes. But how rash is it either to pass a day without prayer," On Prayer ch.11 p.685
Tertullian (200-220/240 A.D.) "The Word, therefore, is both always in the Father, as He says, 'I am in the Father;' and is always with God, according to what is written, 'And the Word was with God;' and never separate from the Father, or other than the Father, since 'I and the Father are one.'" Against Praxeas chapter 8.
Some verses Tertullian used to point out that polytheism was wrong were John 10:30 14:9,10, Isaiah 45:18, and Isaiah 46:6,24. As Tertullian said, it (Isaiah 45:5) does not say, there is one God and without Him thee is none else except my Son. There cannot be separate true Gods.
Tertullian could not accept that the Father was born on earth, was tempted, and died on the cross. He could not see how the Father could sit at His own right hand (Mark 16:19 Rev 3:21). Neither can we.
Other verses Tertullian used to show distinct differences between The Father, Son, and Spirit are: Genesis 3:22, Genesis 1:27, Psalm 45:6-7, John 1:1 (there was one with another), Ps 110:1, Genesis 19:24, John 5:19,22, Ephesians 1:17, Matthew 27:46, and Romans 8:32.
Tertullian said the three were "distinct", "not identical" but "inseparable" and "indivisible"(II)". Father and Son are "just as the root puts forth the tree and the fountain the river, and the sun the ray." One emanates from the other. Likewise the Spirit is "just as the fruit of the tree is third from the root or as the stream out of the river is third from the fountain or as the apex of the ray is third from the sun." Against Praxeas ch.8 p.603
Tertullian thought that only martyrs were currently in Paradise ch.15 p.231.
Tertullian:"Now since all are agreed on this point (because nobody will deny that God is in some sense the great Supreme, except the man who shall be able to pronounce the opposite opinion that God is but some inferior being, in order that he may deny God by robbing Him of an attribute of God), what must be the condition of the great Supreme Himself? Surely it must be that nothing is equal to Him, i because, if there were, He would have an equal; and if He had an equal, He would no longer be the great Supreme now that the " (I p.273).
Even the words "Father and Son" show their difference. A father cannot be his own son any more than a husband can be his own wife. (A.P. X,XI)
Tertullian taught equality in: name, nature or essence, substance, honor, creating, and a difference in: person, visibility, origin, role, and rank. (A.P. IV,XIV-XIX)
Tertullian:"Now since all are agreed on this point (because nobody will deny that God is in some sense the great Supreme, except the man who shall be able to pronounce the opposite opinion that God is but some inferior being, in order that he may deny God by robbing Him of an attribute of God), what must be the condition of the great Supreme Himself? Surely it must be that nothing is equal to Him, i because, if there were, He would have an equal; and if He had an equal, He would no longer be the great Supreme now that the " (I p.273).
God is not, if He is not one; (I p.273.)
"That Being, then, which is the great Supreme, must needs to unique by having no equal, and so not ceasing to be the great Supreme." (IV:III)
Tertullian:"Now since all are agreed on this point (because nobody will deny that God is in some sense the great Supreme, except the man who shall be able to pronounce the opposite opinion that God is but some inferior being, in order that he may deny God by robbing Him of an attribute of God), what must be the condition of the great Supreme Himself? Surely it must be that nothing is equal to Him, i because, if there were, He would have an equal; and if He had an equal, He would no longer be the great Supreme now that the " (I p.273).
On Psalm 82:1-6: "If an identity of names affords a presumption in support of equality of condition, how often do worthless menials strut insolently in the names of kings--your Alexanders, Caesars, and Pompeys! This fact, however, does not detract from the real attributes of the royal persons. Nay more the very idols of the Gentiles are called gods. Yet not one of them is divine because he is called a god. It is not therefore, for the name of god or its sound or its written form that I am claiming the supremacy in the Creator but for the essence to which the name belongs; and when I find that essence alone is unbegotten and unmade-alone eternal, and the maker of all things-it is not to its name, but its state, not to its designation but its condition, that I ascribe and appropriate the attribute of supremacy." vol.1 p.275.
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) 3:308 "God hardens the heart of Pharaoh. He deserved, however, to be influenced to his destruction, who had already denied God, already in his pride so often rejected His ambassadors, accumulated heavy burdens on His people, and (to sum up all) as an Egyptian. "
Tertullian 200-240 A.D. vol.3 p.220 (against total depravity) "Still there is a portion of good in the soul, of that original, divine, and genuine good, which is its proper nature. For that which is derived from God is rather obscured than extinguished." 3:301 "Therefore it was proper that (he who is) the image and likeness of God should be formed with a free will and a mastery of himself; so that this very thing - namely, freedom of will and self-command - might be reckoned as the image and likeness of God in him." 3:303 No doubt it was an angel [Lucifer] who was the seducer; but then the victim of that seduction [Adam] was free, and master of himself;" 3:308 "Who is the author of good, but He who also requires it?" 3:308 "Behold, they [Marcionites] say, how He acknowledges Himself to be the creator of evil in the passage, 'It is I who created evil.' They take a word whose one form reduces to confusion and ambiguity two kinds of evils (because both sins and punishments are called evils), and will have Him in every passage to be understood as the creator of all evil things, in order that He may be designated the author of evil." Against Marcion chap. 14.
Tertullian stresses the authorship of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Revelation, many of Paul's Letters in Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.
Tertullian makes many quotes and allusions from Acts, saying it was in the Acts of the Apostles Against Marcion book 5 ch.2 p.432-433
Tertullian (200-220 A.D.) in his On Prescription Against Heretics ch.20 p.252 also believes the choice of Matthias was proper.
Tertullian quotes 1 Corinthians 8:2 and Galatians 1:7 and 5:7 as being by the apostle in On Prescription Against Heretics ch.27 p.256.
Tertullian mentions John writing the Apocalypse (Revelation) quoting Rev 2:14 and his letter and quotes out of 1 John 4:3. in On Prescription Against Heretics ch.33 p.259.
Tertullian mentions Paul in his letters to the Galatians and Titus and quotes Gal 5:20 and Tt 3:10,11 in On Prescription Against Heretics ch.6
Tertullian quotes Gal 1:6,7 and 2:4 as being by Paul in Against Marcion book 1 ch.20 p.285
Tertullian mentions Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans, and John being the author of the Apocalypse (Revelation) in Against Marcion book 14 ch.5 p.350.
Tertullian says, "I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew - whilst that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter's whose interpreter Mark was. For even Luke's form of the Gospel men unusually ascribe to Paul. And it may well seem that the works which disciples publish belong to their masters." Tertullian Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350
Tertullian quotes Colossians 1:5,6 as being by the apostle in Against Marcion book 5 ch.19 p.470
Tertullian mentions eternal life and eternal punishment of unending fire in Ad Nationes book 1 ch.7 p.116
Tertullian mentions by name two letters to Timothy and one to Titus in Against Marcion book 5 ch.21 p.473
Tertullian wrote, "...that the Evangelical Testament has apostles for its authors, ... apostolic men also ... Of the apostles therefore, John and Matthew first instill faith in us; whilst of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards." Against Marcion book 4 ch.2 p.347
Tertullian mentions that heretics are called Antichrists in "John" (1 John 2:18,29; 2 Jn 7-10. On Fasting ch.11 p.110
Tertullian quotes 1 Peter 2:20 saying it was by Peter in Scorpiace ch.12 p.645.
Tertullian mentions the writing of the Apostle Jude in On the Apparel of Women book 1 p.16
Tertullian (200-220/240 A.D.) has a 3-page book To the Martyrs. He mentions relatives accompanying the martyrs as far as the prison gate. ch.2 p.693
Tertullian made a mistake, quoting 1 Pet 1:15 and saying it was by John. In On Monogamy ch.3 p.61
Tertullian said they did not harm the gods, because they can do no harm to that which has no existence. Apology ch.27 p.40
Tertullian mentions offering prayers for the emperor and the stability of the Roman Empire. Apology ch.32 p.42-43
Tertullian "...for I have but one true Lord, the God omnipotent and eternal, who of Lord of the emperor as well." Apology ch.34 p.43
Tertullian "We are equally forbidden to wish ill, to do ill, to speak ill, to think ill of all men." Apology ch.36 p.45
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "If we are enjoined, then, to love our enemies, as I have remarked above, whom have we to hate? If injured, we are forbidden to retaliate, lest we become as bad ourselves: who can suffer injury at our hands? Apology ch.37 p.45
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) renounced going to spectacles. Apology ch.38 p.46
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "We are a body knit together as such by a common religious profession, by unity of discipline, and by the bond of a common hope. We meet together as an assembly and congregation, that, offering up prayer to God as with united force, we may wrestle with Him in our supplications." Apology ch.39 p.46
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "We assemble to read our sacred writings, ... However it be in that respect, with the sacred words we nourish our faith, we animate our hope, we make our confidence more steadfast; and no less by inculcations of God's precepts we confirm good habits." Apology ch.39 p.46
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) mentioned buying poor slaves, helping poor people, and loving each other. Apology ch.38 p.46
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) goes into great detail about early Christian worship. "After manual ablution, and the brining in of lights, each is asked to stand forth and sing, as he can, a hymn to God, either one from the holy Scriptures or one of his own composing," Apology ch.39 p.47
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "mentions Pompeii and Vulsinii being destroyed. Apology ch.40 p.48
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) mentions Indian Brahmins and Gymnosophists Apology ch.42 p.49
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) mentions astrology as wrong along with assassins, poisoners, pimps, and sorcerers Apology ch.43 p.49
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "The Christian confines himself to the female sex. ... The Christian husband has nothing to do with any but his own wife. Apology ch.46 p.51
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "But it will be said that some of us, too, depart form the rules of our discipline. In that case, however, we count them no longer Christians;" Apology ch.46 p.51
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "A notable proof this of the fire eternal! A notable example of the endless judgment which still supplies punishment with fuel! The mountains burn, and last. How will it be with the wicked and he enemies of God?" Apology ch.48 p.54
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "This victory of ours gives us the glory of pleasing God, and the spoil of life eternal." Apology ch.50 p.54
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "Nor does your cruelty, however exquisite, avail you; it is rather a temptation to us. The oftener we are mown down by you, the more in number we grow; the blood of Christians is seed." Apology ch.50 p.54
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "The principal crime of the human race, the highest guilt charged upon the world, the whole procuring cause of judgment, is idolatry." On Idolatry ch.1 p.61
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) says that science [astrology] has been allowed until the Gospel, in order that after Christ's birth no one should thenceforward interpret any one's nativity by the heaven. For they therefore offered to the then infant Lord that frankincense and myrrh and gold, to be, as it were, the close of worldly sacrifice and glory, which Christ was about to do away. What, then? The dream - sent, doubtless, of the will of God - suggested to the same Magi, namely, that they should go home, but by a different way, not that by which they came." On Idolatry ch.9 p.65-66
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) said that Christians could not serve in the military. On Idolatry ch.19 p.73
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) says man was made in the image of God. The Shows or De Spectaculis ch.2 p.80
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) was against murder, and every sort of "man-killing" as to the commandment "thou shalt not kill" The Shows or De Spectaculis ch.2 p.80
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) "God, the maker of the world" The Shows or De Spectaculis ch.2 p.80
Tertullian mentions Susanna by name (Dan 13:32) in De Corona ch.4 vol.3 p.95
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) speaks of the virgin birth of Christ. An Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.161
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) taught that no one has seen the Father because no one can see God and lived. It was Jesus who spoke to Moses. An Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.163
"Christ, on the other hand, in His times, carried His "wood" on His own shoulders, adhering to the horns of the cross, with a thorny crown encircling His head. For Him it behooved to be made a sacrifice on behalf of all Gentiles,..." Tertullian An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.170-171.
"...after His resurrection from the dead, which was effected on the third day,..." Tertullian An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.171
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) mentions the transmigration philosophy, taught by Simon the Sorcerer and Carpocrates, fabricating a story in A Treatise on the Soul ch.35 p.216.
Tertullian mentions that John the Baptist coming in the spirit and power of Elijah in Matthew 11:14 does not support transmigration [reincarnation]. The error of transmigration teaches a person will die, leave their body, and go to some other body. But Elijah did not die, and he will return in the endtimes in his own body. The "spirit and power" were bestowed as external gifts by the grace of God." A Treatise on the Soul ch.35 p.217-218
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) says "The law of Moses, indeed, punishes with due penalties the man who shall cause abortion, inasmuch as there exists already the rudiment of a human being, which has imputed to it even now the condition of life and death, since it is already liable to the issues of both, although, by living still I the mother, it for the most part shares its own state with the mother." A Treatise on the Soul ch.37 p.218
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) says that the soul by birth has its nature in Adam until it is born again in Christ. It is unclean while is remains without regeneration. It is sinful. A Treatise on the Soul ch.40 p.220
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) says that since the fall in our soul "that which is derived from God is rather obscured rather than extinguished." A Treatise on the Soul ch.41 p.220
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) says, "For God alone is without sin; and the only man without sin is Christ, since Christ is also God. ... Just as no soul is without sin, so neither is any soul without seeds of good." A Treatise on the Soul ch.41 p.221
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) says that in a renewed soul it is now wedded to the Holy Spirit. The flesh is no longer a servant of the soul, but of the Spirit." A Treatise on the Soul ch.41 p.221.
Tertullian taught "the immortality of the soul". A Treatise on the Soul ch.43 p.221
Tertullian taught "the immortality of the soul" in A Treatise on the Soul ch.43 p.221
Tertullian mentions the oracles of Amphiaraus at Oropus, the Amphilocus at Mallus, of Sarpedon in the Troad, of Trophonius in Boeotia, of Mopsus in Cilicia, of Hermione in Macedon, of Pasiphae in Laconia. A Treatise on the Soul ch.43 p.221
Tertullian wrote that the heretic Menander taught that his disciples would never die. A Treatise on the Soul ch.50 p.227-228
Tertullian said that the two witnesses in Revelation who were against the "Antichrist" were Enoch and Elijah. A Treatise on the Soul ch.50 p.227-228
Tertullian taught that the soul was not divisible, and that no part of the soul stays around after a person died. He was aware that some among both heathens and Christians had thought something still remained in the body for a while. A Treatise on the Soul ch.51 p.228
Homosexuality: Plato taught the only souls that went to mansions above were those that cultivated a love for boys. Tertullian remarks, "So great is the privilege which impurity obtains at the hands of philosophers!" A Treatise on the Soul ch.54 p.230
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) "[Christ] died according to the scriptures and according to the same scriptures he was buried. ... Christ descended into hell, that we might ourselves have to descend thither." A Treatise on the Soul ch.55 p.231
After death: Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) says that after Christ died, He went down to Hades to make the patriarchs and prophets partakers of Himself. A Treatise on the Soul ch.55 p.231
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) mentions the archangel's trumpet has not been heard of yet. A Treatise on the Soul ch.55 p.231
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) "you must take up the cross and bear it after your Master, as He has himself instructed you." A Treatise on the Soul ch.55 p.231
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) taught that a demon impersonated Samuel and appeared to Saul in A Treatise on the Soul ch.57 p.234
Tertullian (197-217 A.D.) The Paraclete has also pressed home on our attention in most frequent admonitions." A Treatise on the Soul ch.58 p.235
Tertullian (200-240 A.D.) said that heresies bring with them eternal death and the heat of a stronger fire." The Prescription Against Heretics ch.1 p.243
Tertullian said that Jesus alone persevered without sin. The Prescription Against Heretics ch.3 p.244
Tertullian said that David was a good man, but afterwards he was guilty of murder and adultery. The Prescription Against Heretics ch.3 p.244
Tertullian said "no one is a Christian but he who perseveres even to the end. The Prescription Against Heretics ch.3 p.244
Tertullian said that the antichrists, both now and evermore were the people who rebel against Christ. The Prescription Against Heretics ch.4 p.245
Tertullian said that the Antichrist will persecute the church at that day. Persecution makes martyrs, but heresy makes apostates. The Prescription Against Heretics ch.4 p.245
Tertullian (200-220/240 A.D.) says that Heaven and earth shall pass away, and the first heaven and the first earth passed away [quoting Revelation 21:1) Against Hermogenes ch.34 p.497
Tertullian (200-220/240 A.D.) mentions that while some withhold the kiss of peace when they are fasting, they should not , but kiss then too. On Prayer ch.18 p.686
Tertullian (200-220/20 A.D.) mentions the fallen angels of the Creator in Tertullian Against Marcion book 5 ch.8 p.445.
Like many people of his time, Tertullian mistakenly though the hyena could alter its sex. Tertullian's On the Pallium ch.3 p.7
Tertullian spoke of the evil of lesbians. Tertullian's On the Pallium ch.4 p.10
Women bear the guilt of Eve. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.1 p.14
Evil angels had sex with women. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.2-3 p.14-15
Tertullian thought the angels believers would judge are the fallen angels who had sex with women. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.3 p.14
Mention of the book of Enoch as Scripture. He added that some to not regard this as scripture, as it was supposed it would not have survived the flood, and it is not in the Jewish canon either. However, Tertullian believed the book of Enoch was genuine scripture though. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.3 p.15-16
Every Old Testament scripture was destroyed when the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem, but it is generally agreed that Ezra restored everything. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.3 p 15-16
Gold and silver were taken from mines with terrible conditions. So Tertullian observed that "gold and silver went from torments to ornaments, punishments to embellishments, from ignomies to honors." Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.4 p.16
Tertullian thought that purple and sky-blue fleeces were displeasing to God, - unless He was unable to order sheep born with purple and sky-blue fleeces! Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.8 p.17 and ch.10 p.23
Christians should not go to the racecourse, see the atrocities of the arena, or the turpitude of the stage. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.8 p.17
Idolatry had a material cause from the creatures of God. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.8 p.17
"Isaac, by falsely representing Rebecca as his sister, purchased safety by insult." Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.2 p.19-20
Those who anoint their skin with medicants, stain their cheeks with rouge, or make their eyes prominent with antimony sin against Him [God]". Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.5 p.20
Funny things against fashion. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.6,7 p.21
Tertullian asks if women will have their huge hairdos when angels carry them to heaven at the rapture. He answers that nothing will rise except flesh and spirit, sole and pure. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.7 p.22
Sex in marriage is fine. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.9 p.23
We are predestined of God. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.9 p.23
Tertullian was against pierced ears. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.10 p.23
"Let us cast away earthly ornaments if we desire heavenly ones. Tertullian's On the Apparel of Women book 2 ch.13 p25
Early Creed: "The rule of faith, indeed, is altogether one, alone, immoveable and irreformable ; the rule, to wit, of believing in one only God omnipotent, the Creator of the universe, and His Son Jesus Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, raised again the third day from the dead, received in the heavens, sitting now at the right (hand) of the Father, destined to come to judge quick and dead through the resurrection of the flesh as well (as of the spirit). This law of faith being constant, the other succeeding points of discipline and conversation admit the "novelty" of correction;" Written as early as 204 A.D. Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.1 p.27.
Tertullian mentions how all the church believes the same. Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.2 p.28
Hebrion [Ebionites] say Jesus was not born of a virgin. Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.6 p.31
Tertullian knew Greek. Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.1 p.7 p.32
The Nephilim were the offspring of fallen angels according to Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.7 p.32
Tertullian remarked that women could not speak or lead in church (except for teaching women and children). On the Veiling of Virgins ch.9 p.33
Tertullian, writing 200-240 A.D., mentions that even barbarians did not "despatch [dispatch] to their businesses" girls until they were 12, and boys until they were 14 years old. The context here is betrothal in marriage, though one might argue it is consummating a marriage. Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.11 p.34
Tertullian mentioned a scandal where a virgin under 20 was put in the list of widows in the church. So the church kept a list of widows. Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.9 p.33
Tertullian, writing 200-240 A.D., mentions that Arabian heathen females of that time were entirely veiled except for one eye. Tertullian's On the Veiling of Virgins ch.9 p.37
Tertullian says that no marriage relations are promised to us in heaven because we will be like the angels. Tertullian To His Wife book 1 ch.1 p.39
Tertullian tells his wife that since no marital relations in heaven, she can remarry after he dies. Tertullian To His Wife book 1 ch.1,2 p.34
Tertullian told his wife that it is better to flee from town to town than to deny Christ when your body is racked. Likewise it is better to remarry than to sin. Tertullian To His Wife book 1 ch.3 p.40
Tertullian talks of Gentiles "being decimated" by abortions. Tertullian To His Wife book 1 ch.5 p.41,2
Virginity is not always to God. Vestal virgins and the virgin Oracle of Delphi were example of virginity devoted to Satan. Tertullian To His Wife book 1 ch.6 p.42
Tertullian, writing 200-240 A.D., also wrote that divorce is not allowed except for fornication. So this clause was not an addition after Tertullian's time but was already there. Tertullian To His Wife book 2 ch.2 p.45
Tertullian thought that a Christian marrying an unbeliever is fornication, and 1 Corinthians 6:19 says that Christians are to have no fellowship with someone who calls themselves a Christian and is a fornicator. However, he added that remaining married to an unbeliever after becoming a Christian is right. Tertullian To His Wife book 2 ch.3 p.45
Tertullian gives many good reasons why marrying an unbeliever can be bad. Tertullian To His Wife book 2 ch.4 p.46
Tertullian wrote that some things are in our own power. We cannot say everything is willed by God. Some things are forbidden by God but He allows them. Tertullian On Exhortation to Chastity ch.2 p.50-51
Discussion of Paul's pronouncement vs. the Lord's in 1 Corinthians 7:8,9 Tertullian On Exhortation to Chastity ch.3 p.52
Tertullian notes that Adam had plenty of ribs for God to make more wives, but God only wanted to borrow one rib for one wife. Tertullian On Exhortation to Chastity ch.5 p.53; On Monogamy ch.4 p.61
Some teachings, like an eye for an eye, have "now grown old." Polygamy is one of these too. Tertullian On Exhortation to Chastity ch.6 p.54
Tertullian interpreted 1 Timothy 3:1,2 and Titus 1:5,6 as no polygamous priests. But they had to have been a husband once. Tertullian was generally against remarriage after death as permissible (having license) but not desirable or exemplary. Tertullian On Exhortation to Chastity ch.7 p.54
Tertullian was certainly not a preterist. Tertullian To His Wife book 1 ch.5 p.42 and On Exhortation to Chastity ch.9 p.55
Tertullian, writing 200-240 A.D., mentions that a Christian wife who died is already in the Lord's presence. On Exhortation to Chastity ch.11 p.56
Tertullian mentions chemical abortion as wrong in On Exhortation to Chastity ch.12 p.57
Tertullian used "them" and "us (similar to 1 Corinthians 15:29) in On Monogamy (c.193 A.D.) ch.1 p.59
On Monogamy was written 193 A.D. because ch.3 p.61 says it was about 160 years since Jesus was taken up that they have been waiting for the endtimes. "Now more than ever the time is wound up." On Monogamy ch.4 p.61
Tertullian taught that the paraclete, the Comforter was working in people's hearts in his time. Tertullian On Monogamy ch.3 p.61
Tertullian said the Romans did not allow divorce for the first 600 years after Rome was founded. Tertullian On Monogamy ch9 p.66
A wife should pray for her dead husband's soul and offers sacrifice on the anniversary of his death. Tertullian On Monogamy ch.67 p.67
Some of Tertullian's quotes were not very precise, such as 1 Cor 7:39 in Tertullian On Monogamy ch.11 p.68 and Romans 7:2-3 Tertullian On Monogamy ch.13 p.70.
Tertullian quotes Romans 7:2,3 as being from Romans. Tertullian On Monogamy ch.13 p.70
Some sins are forgivable and some not. Tertullian On Modesty ch.2 p.76
Tertullian said 24,000 died in the plague of Midian, but did not specify in how many days in Tertullian On Modesty ch.6 p.79
Tertullian uses an indirect method of proof. Tertullian On Modesty ch.7 p.81
The Shepherd of Hermas allows pardon for adulterers. Tertullian On Modesty ch.10 p.85
Against the Shepherd of Hermas: But I would yield my ground to you, if the scripture of "the "Shepherd", which is the only one which favours adulterers, had deserved to find a place in the Divine Canon; if it had not been habitually judged by every council of churches (even of your own) among apocryphal and false (writings);" Tertullian On Modesty ch.10 p.85
Tertullian refers to Paul, the author of 2 Corinthians in Tertullian On Modesty ch.13 p.86
Tertullian says 2 Corinthians 2:5-11 does not say plainly to whom Paul was referring. Tertullian On Modesty ch.14 p.89
Tertullian quotes Matthew 5:32, and has the "except for adultery" clause. Tertullian On Modesty ch.16 p.92
Tertullian said the Apocalypse [Revelation] was written by John. Tertullian On Modesty ch.19 p.95
Tertullian explains mortal sin in 1 John are forgivable vs. unforgivable sin. Tertullian On Modesty ch.19 p.96-97
Tertullian thought Hebrews was written by Barnabas in Tertullian On Modesty ch.20 p.97
Tertullian said the letter written by Barnabas [Hebrews] was more generally accepted as scripture than the Shepherd of Hermas. Tertullian On Modesty ch.20 p.97
In Mt 16:18 the keys were personally given to Peter, not the church. Tertullian On Modesty ch.21 p.99
Mention of the Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Tertullian On Modesty ch.21 p.99
Fasts are to be weapons for battling the more direful demons. Tertullian On Fasting ch.8 p.
Mentioned that Cornelius' fasts were heard by God before he was baptized. Mention of Paul's fasts in 2 Corinthians. Tertullian On Fasting ch.8 p.107
Tertullian said it is good to abstain from wine, but Paul told Timothy to take some wine out of medical necessity in 1 Timothy 5:23. Tertullian On Fasting ch.9 p.108
Mention of the Paraclete working in the church in Tertullian On Fasting ch.10 p.109
Antichrists mentioned in "John", [i.e. the First Letter of John ] Tertullian On Fasting ch.11 p.110
Tertullian was aware that Montanists were accused of Galatiacizing [legalism]. Tertullian On Fasting ch.14 p.111-114
Tertullian wrote De Fuga In Persecutione ca.208 A.D. De Fuga Persecution footnote 1 p.116
Nothing happens without God's will. Tertullian's De Fuga Persecution ch.1 p.116
Satan only does what God allows. Tertullian's De Fuga Persecution ch.2 p.116
Tertullian says it is best not to try to flee from persecution. Tertullian's De Fuga Persecution ch.5 p.116
Jonah did not die in the belly of the great beast [big fish]. Tertullian's De Fuga Persecution ch.10 p.122
Tertullian mentions Simon the Magician. Tertullian's De Fuga Persecution ch.12 p.123
Paul's example before Felix shows he would not give bribes to set someone free. Tertullian's De Fuga Persecution ch.12 p.123
Anonymous from Tertullian's Time - c.200-240 A.D.
Anonymous Genesis mentions the "hurtful fruit" in the Garden of Eden but gives no idea that it was an apple. Anonymous Poetry on Genesis (200-240) v.120 p.134
Marcion taught two fathers and we are condemned by one. Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 1 v.190 p.144
Mention of the Four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, and the Letter to the Galatians Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 2 v.60 p.147, (Galatians) book 1 v.20 p.285
The cross looked like the Greek letter Tau Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 3 v.120 p.153
The Old Testament was restored by the word of Ezra. Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 3 v.280 p.155
Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 3 p.151-155 gives an extensive recounting of heroes of the Old Testament, and has no mention of apocryphal events.
Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 3 p.156 lists the first bishops of Rome: Peter, Linus, Cletus, Anacletus, Clement, Evaristus, Sixtus Sextus Alexander, Telesphorus, Peter, Hyginus, Hermas his brother, Anicetus.
Eternal punishment: After death, the harmless infant does not suffer the perpetual penalty. Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 4 p.157
Description of the Temple. The golden altar was in the Holiest of Holies. Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 4 lines 150-165 p.158-159
Mention of the sevenfold unity of the Holy Spirit. Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 4 lines 168-170 p.159
Evidence that John wrote Revelation. The Disciple John testifies that beneath such altar he saw souls which had suffered for Christ's name. Tertullian's Five Books in Reply to Marcion book 4 lines 182-185 p.159
The Octavius of Minucius Felix - 210 A.D.
Minucius Felix was a lay person, who was a lawyer/jurist at Rom according to Jerome. p.169
There is only 1 manuscript of the Octavius of Minucius Felix which is with the writings of Arnobius. It was once thought there were two independent manuscripts, but the second was transcribed from the first. p.170
Boys skipped shells across water even around 200 A.D. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.3 p.174
A pagan said of Christians, "while they fear to die after death they do not fear to die for the present. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.8 p.177
There were many slanders against Christians. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.9 p.177
Strange arguments against Christians. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.10 p.178
The Octavius of Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) ch.18 p.183 To God who is alone, the name God is the whole"
Mention of God as a Father. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.18 p.183
"Alexander the Great wrote in a remarkable document addressed to his mother, that under fear of his power there had been betrayed to him by the priest the secret of the gods having been men: to here he makes Vulcan the original of all, and then the race of Jupiter." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.21 p.185
When does a god begin its existence as a statue? When it is cut, fashioned, finished, worshipped, etc. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.25 p.187
"How much more truly do dumb animals naturally judge concerning your gods? Mice, swallows, kites, know that they have no feeling: they gnaw them, they trample on them, they sit upon them, and unless you drive them off, they build their nests in the very mouth of your god. Spiders, indeed, weave their webs over his face..." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.24 p.187
It is wrong to make men eunuchs. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.24 p.187-188
Use of the name Sosthenes (not the N.T. Sosthenes) The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.26 p.187
Writing against homosexuality. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.28 p.191
A banner is a wooden cross, as is the mast [and pole] of a sailing ship. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.29 p.191
A man adoring God with arms outstretched is a sign of the cross. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.29 p.191
Mention of chemical abortion as an evil that was done. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.30 p.192
Christians did not even use blood of eatable animals in their food according to The Octavius of Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) ch.30 p.192
Egyptians, Persians, and Athenians married sisters according to The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.31 p.192
Christians married either one wife or else none at all. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.31 p.192
Octavius answered the objection of why Christians had no temples or altars. The context indicates they did not have church buildings around 200 A.D. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.32 p.193
Brief mention of Flavius Josephus and the Jewish War. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.33 p.194
Stoics and Epicureans believed the world would dry up and be consumed with fire according to The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.34 p.194
Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) mentions that men's souls returning in beasts [reincarnation] is the "ribaldry of buffoons." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.34 p.194
Mention of the fires of Mt. Vesuvius. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.35 p.195
Mention of the fire of eternal punishment. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.35 p.195
Fate is simply what God has spoken from what God foresees our constitution and "determines also the fates for us, according to our deserts and qualities of individuals." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.36 p.195
"But in adversity He looks into and searches out each one; He weights the disposition of every individual in dangers, even to death at last; He investigates the will of man, certain that to Him nothing can perish. Therefore, as gold by the fires, so are we declared by critical moments." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.36 p.195-196
The Octavius of Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) ch.38 p.196-197 has a whole chapter on why Christians will have nothing to do with anything connected to idol worship.
"How beautiful is the spectacle to God when a Christian does battle with pain; when he is drawn up against threats, and punishments, and tortures; when, mocking the noise of death, he treads under foot the horror of the executioner;..." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.37 p.196
Mention of the brave Roman Mucius Scaevola "lefty". The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.37 p.196
Early Christians used garlands of flowers, but they did not crown their heads. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.ch38 p.197
Mention of "Socrates the buffoon, "confessing that he knew nothing, although boastful in the testimony of a most deceitful demon." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.38 p.197
The Octavius of Minucius Felix does not have any quotes or references to the Old Testament, New Testament, or Apocrypha.
Asterius Urbanus c.232 A.D.
Asterius Urbanus mentions the heresy of Miltiades. The Exordium ch.1 p.335
Asterius Urbanus mentions the New Testament. The Exordium ch.1 p.335
Asterius Urbanus mentions the heresy of Montanus and the ecstatic frenzy. They were expelled form the church and barred from communion. From book 1 ch.2 p.335.
Asterius Urbanus mentions the Holy Spirit and the "Church universal" From book 1 ch.2 p.336
Asterius Urbanus says the Montanists accused orthodox Christians of being "slayers of the prophets" because they would not listen to the Montanist prophets. From book 2 ch.3 p.336.
Asterius Urbanus says that Montanus, Maximilla, and Theodotus the Montanist were not martyred, but died in a different way. From book 2 ch.3 p.336.
The Montanist Maximilla said "I am word, and spirit, and power." Asterius Urbanus from book 2 ch.4 p.336
Asterius Urbanus mentions the Montanist Themison. Themision wrote a letter to various churches, which we do not have preserved today. From book 2 ch.4 p.336-337
"And those first heretics, who from the heresy of Marcion are called Marcionites, allege that they have a great multitude of martyrs for Christ. But yet they do not confess Christ Himself according to the truth." Asterius Urbanus from book 3 ch.6 p.337
Asterius Urbanus mentions the martyr Caius (early church writer) in from book 3 ch.7 p.337.
Asterius Urbanus mentions a heretic (almost certainly a Montanist) writing against the writings of our Christian brother Alcibiades. We do not have these writings preserved. From book 3 ch.8 p.337.
Asterius Urbanus mentions "the Old Testament prophets, or any of the New", and then mentions Agabus, Judas, Silar, the daughters of Philip, or the woman Ammia in Philadelphia. from book 3 ch.9 p.337
Asterius Urbanus mentions the early Christian writer Quadratus. From book 3 ch.9 p.337 and ch.10 p.337
Hippolytus 222-235/6 A.D. - unfinished
Hippolytus was born around 170 A.D.
Hippolytus says Basilides quotes from John 1:9, saying it is from the gospels, so John had to be older than that. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.5 p.7
Pupils of Greek philosophers were Archelaus -> Socrates -> Plato -> Aristotle. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 1 ch.1 p.9
Mention of Brachmans (Brahmans) and Druids. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 1 ch.1 p.9
Pythagoras believed the error of reincarnation into people and animals. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 1 ch.3 p.13
Pythagoras and Zerates the Chaldean believed in the duality of the universe. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 1 ch.2 p.12
Zerates was against eating beans, because when decay had set into the world, that is when beans were created. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 1 ch.2 p.12
Brachmans [Brahmans] of India abstain from meat, cooked food, and eat only fruit that has fallen off of trees by itself according to Hippolytus. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 1 ch.21 p.21
The Celtic Druids derived their system from Zamolxis of Thrace, disciple of Pythagoras. Hippolytus' Refutation of all Heresies book 1 ch.22 p.22
Hippolytus mentioned in his heresies Euphrates the Peratic, Acembes the Carystian. Hippolytus' Refutation of all Heresies book 4 ch.2 p.24
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) knew a lot about Chaldean astrology and he taught that it was wrong. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.3 p.25
One reason Hippolytus gave that astrology was wrong is that it should be from the time of conception, not birth. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.3 p.25
Astrology: Did everyone born at the same time as Alexander of Macedon have the same fate? How about Plato? How about soldiers in battle? Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.3 p.27
Astrology: If those born under Virgo are destined to have fair (light) complexions, how about Ethiopians (blacks) born under the sign of Virgo? Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.6 p.27
Hippolytus gives commonly accepted estimates of the great distance to each of the planets. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.8 p.28-29
Descriptions of characteristics astrologers say for each of the signs. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.15-26 p.32-35
Hippolytus gives out the secrets of how magicians do their tricks. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.28-42 p.35-40
Hippolytus that that smearing the feet with isinglass and salamander would keep them from burning when walking over hot coals. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.33 p.37
Hippolytus mentions Hecate and a cauldron (witches cauldron) Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.35 p.38
Hippolytus refers to Job 1:7, but not correctly. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.47 p.42
Hippolytus has an entire chapter summarizing the folly of astrology. Many heretics used astrology in their systems. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.50 p.44-45
Description of the doctrines of the Valentinian Gnostics. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.51 p.45-46
Mention of dissecting the brain. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.51 p.46
Mention of the Naasseni Gnostics using the Gospel of Thomas. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.48
Mention of the Naasseni Gnostics using the Gospel According to the Egyptians. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.49
Hippolytus said that the Assyrians were the first to teach that the soul has three parts, yet is still one. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.49
The Naaseni claimed their doctrines came from James the brother of Jesus and handed down through Mariamne. They also claim their teachings came from the Assyrians, Phrygians, Egyptians, Samothracians, Homer, and others. Actually they eclectically combined Greek ideas of Venus, Adonis, Proserpine, Oriris and Isis, the Bible, and their own innovations. They thought Mercury/Hermes was the logos of the Bible. Their object of worship was "Naas", who was the serpent. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.49
The Naaseni [Gnostics of the Gospel of Thomas] taught human reproduction was an exceedingly wicked and filthy. They taught that the new man, which Attis became, was emasculated and became hermaphrodite. Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.49
The Naaseni were ascetic Gnostics who liked Paul. They taught that Romans 1:20-27 comprised the entire secret or hidden mystery of theirs. That is why they valued the hermaphrodite man. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.49-50
Hippolytus quotes from the Gospel of Thomas, but this is not found in the Gospel of Thomas we have. "He who seeks me, will find me in children from seven years old; for there concealed, he shall in the fourteenth age be made manifest." Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.50
Hippolytus quotes an entire Naaseni hymn. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.5 p.58
Hippolytus explains the doctrines of the Peratae Gnostics. They said Christ came from heaven unoriginated; they practiced their own peculiar astrology too, with half the astrological signs (including Aries and Gemini) being male, and half (including Taurus) being female. He then gives an extensive quotes from one of their books. Their system includes Mercury, Berosus, Zoroaster, Vulcan, Achilles, Raphael, Omphale, the fates, Priam, Danaides, Peliades, Paris, Ganymede, Icarius, Jason, and many others. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.7 p.58-59
Hippolytus briefly mentions the Sibylline Oracles (2:1), though it is not a positive reference. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.11 p.62
Beliefs of the Peretae heresy. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.12 p.63
Beliefs of the Sethians (Sithians) Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.14-17 p.64-69
Hippolytus says the Sethian scripture is called The Paraphrase of Seth. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.17 p.68
Description of the Gnostic system of Justinus. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.18-23 p.69-73
Justinus and his followers took secret oaths with horrible penalties. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.18 p.69
Justinus' scripture was called Baruch. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.19 0.69
Justinus taught that the snake (Naas) had sex with Eve, and then with Adam. Naas was also the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.21 p.71
Hippolytus says that Justinus taught that Elohim sent Hercules to stop 12 angels. Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.21 p.72
Hippolytus has extensive discussion of Simon the Sorcerer. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.4 p.75
Simon the Sorcerer later went to Rome, and Peter opposed him there. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.14 p.80
Simon said he would rise on the third day if buried alive. He did not try though. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.15 p.81
The Pythagorean systems was similar to the Gnostics. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.18-21 p.82-85
Hippolytus describes the system of the Gnostic Valentinus. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.24-32 p.85-91
Other Gnostic groups included Secundus, Epiphanes, and Ptolomaeus. Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.33 p.91
Mention of Irenaeus' writing Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.37 p.93; ch.50 p.99
Theodotus believed "partly in keeping with the doctrines of the true Church, in so far as he acknowledges that all things were created by God." Hippolytus' Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.23 p.114.
Hippolytus mentions the Gospels in The Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.24 p.85.
Hippolytus, disciple of Irenaeus and Bishop of Portus 220-236 A.D. 5:152 "[Jesus] might exhibit His own manhood as an aim for all men. And that by Himself in person He might prove that God made nothing evil, and that man possesses the capacity of self-determination, inasmuch as he is able to will and not to will, and is endued with the power to do both." Refutation of All Heresies 10:29
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) (two witnesses) say that then the two prophets and forerunners of the Lord finishing their course, and the whole world finally approaching consummation, "what remains but the coming of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ from heaven, for whom we have looked in hope?" Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.63 p.218
Preterism: ""and the whole world finally approaching the consummation, what remains but the coming of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ from heaven, for whom we have looked in hope?" Treatise on Christ and Anti-Christ ch.64 p.218
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) says condemned and lost people have everlasting punishment according in his Fragment 40 on his Discourses and Homilies p.252.
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) "He was manifest as God and man. And it is easy to perceive the man in Him,..." Then he mentions Jesus being scourged by Pilate, dying, and raised by the Father on the third day. ... "And the divine in Him, on the other hand, is equally manifest, when He is worshipped by angels, and seen by shepherds, ... and works many wonders and forgives sins." Fragment from Commentary on Psalm 2 p.170.
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) says, "Son of God who, being God, became man." in Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.8 p.226
Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) mentions the Holy Spirit and the virgin as the economy [means] of the Word [Jesus] coming to earth. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.4 p.225
Hippolytus bishop of Portus (222-235/6 A.D.) mentions the New Testament of our Savior in Commentary on Genesis 49:12-15 p.165.
"Proverbs, therefore, are words of exhortation serviceable for the whole path of life; for to those who seek their way to God, these serve as guides and signs to revive them when wearied with the length of the road." From the Commentary on Proverbs by Hippolytus
Hippolytus said this about the subsequent lives of the apostles.
"Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia and Cappadocia [all in Asia Minor], and Betania and Italy, and Asia and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner.
Andrew preached to the Scythians [in Russia] and Thracians, and was crucified, suspended on an olive tree at Patrae, a town of Achaia [in Greece]; and there too he was buried.
John, again in Asia was banished by Domitian the King to the isle of Patmos in which he also wrote his Gospel and saw the apocalyptic vision; and in Trajan's time he fell asleep at Ephesus where his remains were sought for, but could not be found.
James his brother when preaching in Judea, was cut off with the sword by Herod the tetrarch, and was buried there. Eusebius 2:9 says beheaded.
Philip preached in Phrygia [in Asia Minor] and was crucified in Hierapolis with his head downward in the time of Domitian, and was buried there.
Bartholomew again preached to the Indians, to whom he also gave the Gospel according to Matthew, and was crucified with his head downward and was buried in Albanum, a town of Great Armenia.
And Matthew wrote the Gospel in the Hebrew tongue and published it at Jerusalem, and fell asleep at Hierees a town of Parthia [Iran]. Papias (65-156 A.D.) also records that Matthew was written in Hebrew.
And Thomas preached to the Parthians, Medes Persians Hyrcanians, Bactrians, and Margians (Magi?) [all in Iran and Afghanistan, and USSR], and was thrust through in the four members of his body with a pine spear at Calamene, the city of India and was buried there.
And James the son of Alphaeus when preaching in Jerusalem, was stoned to death by the Jews and was buried there beside the temple. Josh McDowell says crucified.
Jude, who is also called Lebbaeus preached to the people of Edessa, and to all Mesopotamia, and fell asleep at Berytus, and was buried there. Josh McDowell says killed by arrows.
Simon the Zealot, the son of Cleopas, who is also called Jude, became the bishop of Jerusalem after James the Just (Lord's brother), and fell asleep and was buried there at the age of 120 years. Josh McDowell says crucified.
And Matthias, who was one of the seventy, was numbered along with the eleven apostles, and preached in Jerusalem, and fell asleep and was buried there.
And Paul entered into the apostleship a year after the assumption of Christ; and beginning at Jerusalem, he advanced as far as Illyricum, and Italy, and Spain, preaching the Gospel for thirty-five years. And in the time of Nero he was beheaded at Rome and was buried there." p.255
In introducing the One, True God to the Greek Gnostics, Hippolytus says in The Refutation of All Heresies 10:28 p.150, "The first and only (one God) both Creator and Lord or all, had nothing coeval with Himself, not infinite chaos, nor measureless water nor solid earth, .... But He was One alone in Himself."
The next chapter goes on, "Therefore this solitary and supreme Deity by an exercise of reflection, brought forth the Logos first; ... The Logos was in the Father Himself bearing the will of His progenitor, and not being unacquainted with the mind of the Father."
In Discourse on the Holy Theophany, chapter 10, Hippolytus discusses who can become a true Christian. "For he who comes down in faith to the laver of regeneration and renounces the devil, and joins himself to Christ; who denies the enemy and makes the confession that Christ is God; who puts off the bondage and puts on the adoption, --he comes up from the baptism brilliant as the sun,..."
Hippolytus writes, "He calls Him, then, "the first-fruits of them that sleep," as the "first-begotten of the dead." For He, having risen, and being desirous to show that that same (body) had been raised which had also died when His disciples were in doubt, called Thomas to Him, and said "Reach hither; handle me, and see: for a spirit hath not bone and flesh, as ye see me have." (Hippolytus, Bishop and Martyr, in a Letter to a Certain Queen (or Princess)"
According Evidence That Demands a Verdict, Hippolytus quotes from the New Testament 1,378 times. Hippolytus also thought the Apocrypha was scripture. There are over 36,289 quotes from the New Testament in just seven church fathers. Even if every single copy of the New Testament were destroyed or changed, we would still know the original meaning from the quotes alone.
Hippolytus says, "A man, ... is compelled to acknowledge God the Father Almighty, and Christ Jesus the Son of God who, being God became man, to whom also the Father made all things subject Himself excepted, and the Holy Spirit; and that these therefore, are three." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.8
Hippolytus writes, "We accordingly see the Word incarnate and we know the Father by Him and we believe in the Son (and) we worship the Holy Spirit." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.12
Hippolytus discusses John 1:1 in the way Christians understand it, not using "Jehovah's Witness Greek." He quotes part of John 1:1 and then says, "If, then the Word was with God and was also God what follows? Would one say that he speaks of two Gods? I shall not indeed speak of two Gods but of one; of two Persons however and of a third economy (disposition), viz., the grace of the Holy Ghost. For the Father indeed is One but there are two Persons because there is also the Son; and then there is the third the Holy Spirit. The Father decrees, the Word executes and the Son is manifested, through whom the Father is believed on. The economy of the harmony is led back to one God; for God is One. It is the Father who commands and the Son who obeys and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding; the Father is above all, and the Son who is through all and the Holy Spirit who is in all. And we cannot otherwise think of one God, but by believing in truth in Father and Son and Holy Spirit." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14
2 Peter 3:2 and 2:1 by Peter. p.244
Php 3:2 by Paul p.244
1 John 3:10; 2:18 by John the Theologian, the beloved. P.244
Jude the Brother of James. p.244
Rev 1:8 by John p.244
Rom 9:6 by the apostle
Eph 3:15 and 1 Cor 8:6 scripture
Rev 20:6 by John p.218
1 Th 4:12 by Paul to the Thessalonians Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.66 p.219
2 Thess 2:1-11 Paul writing to the Thessalonians p.218
Rev 11:3 by John. P.213
Gal 1:1 by Paul. P.206
Luke 7:41 holy gospel.
Mt 13:43; 25:34 by the Lord. P.218
2 Cor 12:2 by Paul p.54
Php 3:2 and Col 2:8 by Paul. P.244
The Instructions of Commodianus - c.240 A.D.
The translator distinguishes between the millenarist position of Commodianus and later chiliasm. The Instructions of Commodianus p.201
The Nephilim were the offspring of women and fallen angels. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.3 p.203
Mention of the zodiac in conjunction with idol worship. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.7 p.204
Discussion of the actual human origins or alleged Greco-Roman gods. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.4-19 p.203-206
It pleased God that demons should wander in the world for our discipline. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.22 p.207
It was a palm tree that caused Adam's fall by eating an apple. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.35 p.209
We shall be immortal 6,000 years after Adam at. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.33 p.209
"The first law is lost; man eats when he can, who adores the forbidden gods, the evil joys of life. Reject this partaking; it will suffice you to know what it should be. If you wish to live, surrender yourselves to the second law. Avoid the worship of temples, the oracles of demons; turn yourselves to Christ, and ye shall be associates with God. Holy is God's law, which teaches the dead to live." The Instructions of Commodianus ch.35 p.210
After Elijah will come to seal the loves ones, the earth will tremble for seven years. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.41 p.211
Amen flames on the nations, and the Medes and Parthians burn for a thousand years, as the hidden words of John declare. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.43 p.211
After heaven descends in the first resurrection; "We shall arise again to Him, who have been devoted to Him. And they shall be incorruptible, even already living without death. And neither will there be any grief nor any groaning in that city. They shall come also who overcame cruel martyrdom under Antichrist, and they themselves live for the whole time, and receive blessings because they have suffered evil tings; and they themselves marrying, beget for a thousand years.... But from the thousand years God will destroy all those evils." The Instructions of Commodianus ch.44 p.212
"Warned by example, do not sin gravely; ... Flee far from the bait of the mouse-trap, where there is death. Many are the martyrdoms which are made without shedding of blood." The Instructions of Commodianus ch.48 p.212
Children might deserve to be killed because of the faults of their parents. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.51 p.213
Interpretation of the parable of the wheat and the tares. The tares are those who stand mingled in the church. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.55 p.213
Commodianus was against Christian women wearing jewelry or makeup. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.60 p.215
Reference to Matthew and the mote in your brother's eye vs. the beam in your eye. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.66 p.216
"A treacherous peace is coming to you; persecution is rife; the wounds do not appear; and thus, without slaughter, ye are destroyed. War is waged in secret, because, in the midst of peace itself, scarcely one of you has behaved himself with caution. O badly fortified, and foretold for slaughter, ye praise a treacherous peace, - a peace that is mischievous to you. Having become soldiers of another than Christ, ye have perished." The Instructions of Commodianus ch.66 p.216
Mention of assembling at Easter. The Instructions of Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) ch.75 p.216
The dead will rise again with their bodies. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.80 p.218
The world will be burned with fire when the 6,000 years have ended. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.80 p.218
After the antichrist is conquered, those who were worthy under the antichrist will reign for 1,000 years. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.80 p.218
Those who take no account of God will perish when the thousand years are ended. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.80 p.218
"I cannot comprehend all things in a little treatise; the curiosity of the learned men shall find my name in this." The footnote says that if we read the initials of the verses backward, the name Commodianus Mendicus Christi is found. The Instructions of Commodianus ch.80 p.218
Commodianus' second letter mentions more about the Antichrist. He speculates the end of the world will come with the seventh persecution. The Goths will conquer Rome and rescue the Christians. However, Nero will appear as the Gentile antichrist, reconquer Rome, and fight Christians. Then the Jewish Antichrist will conquer Nero, burn Rome, perform false miracles, and be worshipped by the Jews. Then Christ appears with an army of the "twelve lost tribes", who had been living east of Persia. He will conquer Jerusalem, convert all nations, and capture Jerusalem. Elucidations on The Instructions of Commodianus p.219
Julius Africanus - wrote 232-245 A.D.
(respected Origen but differed with him on the Apocryphal story of Susanna)
Julius was a disciple of Heraclas p.123-124, a subordinate of Origen. (Heraclas was before Dionysius of Alexandria p.123)
Africanus tried to prove to Origen that the apocryphal story of Susanna in Daniel was a forgery. p.124
Julius Africanus mentions God the Father. Epistle to Aristides ch.1 p.125
Julius Africanus (writing 235-245 A.D.) mentions ancient Greek historians who wrote about the Exodus. "Polemo, for instance, in the first book of his Greek History, says: 'In the time of Apius, son of Phoroneus, a division of the army of the Egyptians left Egypt, and settled in the Palestine called Syrian, not far from Arabia: these are evidently those who were with Moses. And Apion the son of Poseidonius, the most laborious of grammarians, in his book Against the Jews, and in the fourth book of his History, says that in the time of Inachus king of Argos, when Amosis reigned over Egypt, the Jews revolted under the leadership of Moses. And Herodotus also makes mention of this revolt, and of Amosis, in his second book, and in a certain way also of the Jews themselves, reckoning them among the circumcised, and called them the Assyrians of Palestine, perhaps through Abraham. And Ptolemy the Mendesian, who narrates the history of the Egyptians from the earliest times, gives the same account of all these things; so that among them in general there is no difference worth notice in the chronology." The Ante-Nicene Fathers volume 6 Julius Africanus fragment 13 p.124.
Julius Africanus mentions Luke by name in the Epistle to Aristides ch.3 p.126
Mentions the evangelist Matthew in the Epistle to Aristides ch.3 p.126
Quotes 1 Cor 15:12 and says it was by the apostle. Epistle to Aristides ch.1 p.125
Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) discusses the 70 weeks of Daniel referring to the death of Christ. The seventy weeks starts with the decree to rebuild Jerusalem in the 20th year of Artaxerxes. Five Books of the Chronology of Julius Africanus ch.16 p.132-134
Quotes Dan 8:1,13,14 Events in Persia ch.18 p.137
* Julius Africanus mentions Polybius, Phlegon, Berosus, Diodorus, Thallus, Castor, Accusilaus, Hellaclus the Athenian historian on p.133
Julius Africanus mentions Philochorus the historian on p.133,134
Julius Africanus mentions Alexander Polyhistor, Herodotus, and Ptolemy the Mendesian on p.134
Julius Africanus mentions Esdra (Ezra) the Hebrew historian p.133
Julius Africanus mentions Marcion p.137
Julius Africans mentions that in Greek mythology Juno died and came back as Urania, who the god Sol embraced. P.128
Julius Africans has a fanciful account of the events in Persia prior to the Magi visiting Christ p.128-130
Julius Africanus was a real chronologer, like bishop Ussher. P.130-138.
Julius Africans mentions that Thallus writes about the darkness over the land, unreasonably attributing it to an eclipse of the sun. ch.18 p.136
Gregory Thaumaturgus - 240-265 A.D.
(pupil of Origen)
Gregory was born around 205 A.D.. He was bishop from 240-250 A.D. When the Decian persecution started in 250 A.D., he fled to the wilderness. He still took part in church councils and wrote though. He died in 265 A.D.
Gregory Thaumaturgus studied under Origen at Caesarea. He went into full-time ministry only because Origen exhorted him to do so. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.3,5
Gregory Thaumaturgus was also called Theodorus. He was born in Pontus around 205 A.D. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.3,5
Gregory Thaumaturgus went into hiding during the Decian persecution. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.6. He died on the way back from the Council of Antioch in 265 A.D. to try Paul of Samosata. He was bishop of Amasea. When he began his ministry there were only 17 Christians in the town. When he died there were only 17 pagans. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.6
Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and he mentions the Trinity three times in his "Declaration of Faith" in the Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.7
Gregory Thaumaturgus interprets Ecclesiastes as Solomon forsook wisdom and went after evil pleasures, but later repented. A Metaphrase of the book of Ecclesiastes vol.6 ch.2 p.10.
Gregory Thaumaturgus taught that all meat was OK to eat. Canonical Epistle 1 p.18
Gregory Thaumaturgus said that the teaching that that which comes out defiles, not what goes in also applies to captive women who were defiled by barbarians. Canonical Epistle 1 p.18
Gregory Thaumaturgus discusses penitents and their weeping. Canonical Epistle 40 p.20
When the Goths were on the march in 257/259-267 A.D., some Christians had already been living among the Goths. Canonical Epistles Elucidation 1 p.20
Mormonism: Gregory Thaumaturgus said that God is the ruler and originator of all things. Oration and Panegyric Addressed to Origen argument 3 p.24
Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) mentions God the Father. Oration and Panegyric Addressed to Origen argument 4 p.24
Gregory Thaumaturgus said there could be no genuine piety towards the Lord in a man who despised the gift of philosophy. Oration and Panegyric Addressed to Origen argument6 p.27
Gregory Thaumaturgus has 29 pages of genuine material, plus 31 pages of spurious works.
Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria - 200-246-265 A.D.
(pupil of Origen)
Dionysius of Alexandria was born around 205 A.D., was a student of Origen's. He succeeded Heraclas as the head of the school at Alexandria, and then succeeded Heraclas as bishop of Alexandria in 246 A.D. He hid during the Decian persecution. He died in 265 A.D. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.77
Dionysius of Alexandria was captured during the Decian persecution, providentially delivered from death, then went into hiding. Letter 10 ch.1 p.104
In the strife between Cyprian and Stephen, Dionysius of Alexandria stood with Cyprian. p.77
Dionysius of Alexandria did not attend the Council at Antioch 265 A.D. because he was too old.
When Nepos was arguing to chiliasm, Dionysius of Alexandria called a conference so that everyone could discuss it. He ended up writing against Nepos the work A Treatise on the Promises, or which we have only fragments today. P.70
Dionysius of Alexandria wrote A book on Nature against the Epicureans and A Work Against the Sabellians, addressed to Dionysius bishop of Rome. p.77
Dionysius of Alexandria says that Revelation was written by John, but thinks it was a different John that the author of the Gospel, and 1 and 2 John. He thought this based on the fact that John did not use his name in the other books, Dionysius says there were two different monuments in Ephesus, and both of them are to a John. Two books on the Promises ch.4-5 p.82-83
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions two letters by John the apostle, but not a third. Two books on the Promises ch.4-5 p.82-83
Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) after mentioning Democritus later says we are not to worship atoms. The books on Nature ch.3 p.87; ch.5 p.91
Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions God as our "Father and Maker" in The books on Nature ch.4 p.88. He also mentions the Father and Son, and he says there was never a time when God was not the Father in his Letter to Dionysius Bishop of Rome book 1 ch.1,2 p.92. The Son always co-existed with the Father ibid ch.5 p.92.
Dionysius of Alexandria has the following good examples of the Trinity and the relationship between the Father and Son: The Father is Light, Christ is Brightness, the Light of Light. The Father is Spirit, the Son is breath. Epistle to Dionysius Bishop of Rome book 1 ch.4 p.92. Also, he reiterates spring and river ibid ch.7 p.93
Bad illustrations of the Trinity: Dionysius of Alexandria wrote some bad illustrations of the Trinity, which he later told Dionysius of Rome that he was wrong and these were not appropriate. Son the plant, Father the gardener, Son the boat, the Father the boat builder, a plant and what it sprouted from. Epistle to Dionysius Bishop of Rome book 1 ch.6 p.92
Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions the Trinity by name twice in Letter 4 ch.8 p.93.
Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions that the gospel writers do not disagree or contradict each other. Then he gives a complete harmony of the time after the resurrection in Letter to the Bishop Basilides canon 1 p.93-94.
Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions the earthquake in Matthew. Letter to the Bishop Basilides canon 1 p.94.
Dionysius of Alexandria said the Romans tried ingenious ways to persecute Christians. Letter to Bishop Fabian ch.3 p.98
Dionysius of Alexandria gives gruesome details of some of the martyrdoms in his Letter to Fabius Bishop of Antioch ch.3-7 p.98-100. After seeing all this, some of the Roman soldiers became Christians ibid ch.8 p.100.
Dionysius of Alexandria said that during the persecution some soldiers became Christians too. Letter 3 - to Bishop Fabian ch.5,8 p.99,100
Dionysius of Alexandria sent some of the Eucharist (consecrated bread and wine) to a dying person who had denied the faith under persecution but had repented. Letter 3 - to Bishop Fabian ch.10 p.101
Dionysius of Alexandria taught that there is only one God, the maker of all things. Letter 10 ch.5 p.105.
Dionysius of Alexandria gave a good explanation of why Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane asked if this cup could pass from him. Exegetical fragment 3 in The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.108
A local ruler forbade Christians from entering cemeteries. Dionysius of Alexandria Letter 10 ch.5 p.104. Apparently the Romans knew they would secretly meet there. A cemetery or catacomb was a good place to meet for the non-superstitious, because the superstitious would not look for them there. (That is one good thing, perhaps the only good thing, about superstition!)
Dionysius of Alexandria speaks of the humility and the humanity of Christ. Exegetical fragment 5 in The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.118
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions the following New Testament books: Gospel of John, Acts, 1 and 2 John, Revelation. Two books on the Promises ch.4 p.82-84
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions the Greek philosophers Plato, Pythagoras, Stoics, and Heraclitus. From the books on Nature ch.1 p.84
Dionysius of Alexandria quotes 1 Corinthians 15:41 as by Paul. The books on Nature ch.3 p.86
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions the following Greek philosophers: Epicurus, Democritus, Diodorus, Heraclides, Asclepiades. The books on Nature ch.1 p.85.
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions Hesiod and Epicurus in The books on Nature ch.4 p.89.
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions Socrates in The books on Nature ch.5 p.91
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions by name Matthew, John, Luke, and Mark in his Letter to Bishop Basilides canon 1 p.94.
Dionysius of Alexandria quotes half of Romans 14:23 saying it is by the apostle his Letter to Bishop Basilides canon 4 p.96.
Dionysius of Alexandria alludes to Hebrews 10:30 saying it is by Paul in his Letter to Fabius, Bishop of Antioch ch.3 p.98.
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions the Sabellians, calling them heretics in Letter 5 to Stephen Bishop of Rome p.102.
Dionysius of Alexandria mentions repulsing Novatian, who rent the church and drew away some to impiety and blasphemies. Mentions the impious doctrine of God not being merciful. In Letter 8 to Dionysius of Rome p.103.
Novatian -254-256 A.D. - not started
Novatian (turned schismatic) 254-256 A.D. 5:646 "For in reprobating what He [God] has made, He will appear to have condemned His own works, which He had approved as good; and He will be designated as seeming capricious in both cases, as the heretics indeed would have it;" On the Jewish Meats 2.
Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "He [God] preserved the most righteous Noe from the perils of the deluge, for the merit of His innocence and faith; He translated Enoch.: He elected Abraham into the society of his friendship; He protected Isaac" Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.8 p.617
Bardaisan of Syria 154-222 A.D.
Bardaisan asked why God did not create men incapable of doing wrong. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.723-725
"For he in whom there is no fear of God is a slave to all sorts of fears." The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.724
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) Man is made in the image of elohim. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.724
Bardaisan of Syria 154-224-232 A.D. "But God, in His benignity, chose not so to make man; but by freedom He exalted him above many of His creatures. fragments quoted from Forster and Marston. This is the same as "It will therefore be manifest to you, that the goodness of God is great toward man, and that freedom give to him in greater measure than to any of those elemental bodies of which we have spoken, in order that by this freedom he may justify himself, and order his conduct in a godlike manner, and be copartner with angels, who are likewise possessed of personal freedom. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.725
Bardaisan of Syria 154-224-232 A.D. believed that some angels fell and had sex with women. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.725
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) has a discussion of the golden rule. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.725
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) no stealing, lying, hating, or deception. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.725,727
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) we should not have the false affection called lust. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.726
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) producing children is fine, but he also emphasized being pure. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.726
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) Fate does not control us, but God rules over us. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.728,729
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) A man does not become a father before he reaches the age of 15, and a woman a mother before 13. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.728,
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) Eating meat is fine. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.728
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) drunkenness is wrong. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.729
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) has a lengthy discussion of astrology and how the predictions or tendencies are flat wrong in many places. People have the freedom to overrule fate and astrology. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.729-732
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) mentions the astrology of the Egyptians and Chaldeans. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.729
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) mentions the religious morals of the Brahmans of India, other Indians, the circumcision of the Arabians, the Persians, and the Gauls. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.730
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) says that Brahmans could not eat meat or drink wine. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.730
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) says that other Indians were cannibals. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.730,732
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) says that Persians practiced incest. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.731,732
Homosexuality: Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) says that in Gaul some many took youthful boys as wives. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.731,732
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) says that some Britons practiced one wife having many husbands [polyandry]. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.731
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) knew that the Hindus practiced burning wives to death twhen their husbands die [suttee]. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.732
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) says that the people of the Roman province of Arabia practiced circumcision, but when the Romans conquered it they stopped it. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.733
Christians assembled on the first day of the week. Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.733
Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria 154-224-232 A.D. "And what shall we say of the new race of us Christians, whom Christ a His advent planted in every country and in every region? For, lo! Wherever we are, we are all called after the one name of Christ - Christians. On one day, the first of the week, we assemble ourselves together, and on the days of the readings we abstain from taking sustenance. The brethren who are in Gaul do not take males for wives, nor those who are in Parthia two wives; nor do those who are in Judaea circumcise themselves, nor do our sisters who are among the Geli consort with strangers; nor do those brethren who are in Persia take their daughters for wives; nor do those who are in Media abandon their dead, or bury them alive, or give them as food to the dogs; nor do those who are in Edessa kill their wives or their sisters when they commit impurity, but they withdraw from them, and give them over to the judgment of God... but wherever they are, and in whatever place they are found, the laws of the several countries do not hinder them from obeying the law of their Sovereign, Christ; nor does the Fate of the celestial Governors compel them to make use of things which they regard as impure." The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.733.
Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224-232 A.D.) taught that the world would only last 6,000 years. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.734
Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage - wrote 246-258 A.D. - not started
Cyprian of Carthage was born 200 A.D. wrote starting 246 A.D., became bishop of Carthage from 248 A.D. until his martyrdom in 258 A.D.
similar to Tertullian
Cyprian, bishop of Carthage and martyr 248-258 A.D. ~5:317 "watch against the snares of the devil, and, taking care for you own salvation, be diligently on your guard against this death-bearing fallacy." 5:357 "Keep discipline, lest haply the Lord be angry, and ye perish from the right way, when His anger shall quickly burn against you. And what shall Christ and our Lord and Judge think, when He sees His virgin, dedicated to Him, and destined for His holiness, lying with another?" 5:358 Nor let them think that the way of life or of salvation is still open to them, if they have refused to obey the bishops and priests.." Epistle 61.
Cyprian quotes John 17:3-5 saying it is in the Gospel of John, Paul in Colossians, and quoting Colossians 1:15 and 1:18; the Apocalypse quoting Revelation 21:6; and Paul in his First Corinthians quoting 1 Corinthians 1:22-24. The Treatises of Cyprian Second book 2. p.516.
Cyprian mentions the Gospel of Luke quoting Luke 12:33, and 2 Corinthians and quotes 2 Corinthians 8:14-15 in The Treatises of Cyprian p.532.
Cyprian (246-258 A.D.) mentions washing each others feet. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 5 ch.2 p.283
Cyprian mentions the Epistle of John and quotes 1 John 4:16. The Treatises of Cyprian Third book 4 p.533
Cyprian (246-258 A.D.) "Divine Scripture proves this, when it says, ..." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.24 p.429
Cyprian (246-258 A.D.) "you have always flourished in His Church, .. watchfulness in helping those that suffer, mercy in cherishing the poor, constancy in defending the truth,..." Letter 76 p.403
"whom on his departure from this world eternal flame shall torment with never-ending punishments" Cyprian's Treatise 7.13 p.472
Cyprian mentions Ephesians and the Epistle of Peter quoting 2 Peter 2:11-12. The Treatises of Cyprian p.536
Cornelian to Cyprian 246-256 A.D.
Cornelius to Cyprian (246-258 A.D.) "I ... do render the greatest thanks without ceasing, dearest brother, to God the Father Almighty, and to His Christ the Lord and our God and Saviour, that the Church is thus divinely protected, and its unity and holiness is not constantly nor altogether corrupted by the obstinacy of perfidy and heretical wickedness." Letter 46 p.324
Firmilian to Cyprian 246-256 A.D.
7 ¼ pages
Firmilian (246-256 A.D.) "it is sufficient shortly to say in sum, that they who do not hold the true Lord the Father cannot hold the truth either of the Son or of the Holy Spirit..." Letter 74.7 p.392
Nemesianus, Dativus, Felix, and Victor to Cyprian (246-256 A.D.) 1 page p.404,405; 421
Quote: "Let us, then, be in our prayers helpers of one another:and let us ask, as you have bidden us, that we may have God and Christ and the anels as supports in all our actions." Letter 77 p.405
Lucius and the brethren to Cyprian (246-256 A.D.) 1/2 page p.405-406
Quote: "... as being certain of the heavenly rewards, and of the crown of martyrdom, and of the kingdom of God, from the prophecy which, being filled with the Holy Spirit, you have pledged to us in your letter." Letter 78 p.406
Anonymous Treatise Against Novatian - 254-256 A.D. not started
Theognostus of Alexandria - 260 A.D. not started
Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) teaches how the Son relates to God the Father in Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines ch.1 p.155.
Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) teaches how the Holy Spirit is the third in chapter 2 and explains how the Holy Spirit communes with the perfected in chapter 3 in Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines p.156.
Methodius - 260-312 A.D. not started
Methodius bishop of Olympus, Patara, and Tyre, martyr 260-312 A.D. 6:356-363 Wrote a whole work called Concerning Free Will.
Methodius (260-213 A.D.) God is a Father The Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 1 ch.3 p.312
Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Very God, in the name of the Very God, the Omnipotent from the Omnipotent, the Son in the name of the Father." Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.396.
Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, even as their substance is one and their dominion one. Whence also, with one and the same adoration, we worship the one Deity in three Persons, subsisting without beginning, uncreate, without end, and to which there is no successor. For neither will the Father ever cease to be the Father, nor again the Son to be the Son and King, nor the Holy Ghost to be what in substance and personality He is. For nothing of the Trinity will suffer diminution, either in respect of eternity, or of communion, or of sovereignty. For not on that account is the Son of God called king, because for our sakes He was made man," Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.397.
Arnobius - 297-303 A.D. not started
Arnobius 297-303 A.D. 6:458-459 "To all, He says, the fountain of life is open, and no one is hindered or kept back from drinking. If you are so fastidious as to spurn the kindly offered gift, ... why should He keep on inviting you, while His only duty is to make the enjoyment of His bounty depend upon your own free choice?" 6:458-459 "Nay, my opponent says, if God is powerful, merciful, willing to save us, let Him change our dispositions, and compel us to trust in His promises. This, then is violence, not kindness nor the bounty of the Supreme God, but a childish and vain strife in seeking to get the mastery. For what is so unjust as to force men who are reluctant and unwilling, to reverse their inclinations, to impress forcibly on their minds what they are unwilling to receive," Against the Heathen 2:64,65.
Lactantius - 260-325 A.D. - unfinished
Lactantius tutored Constantine's Son. The Divine Institutes were dedicated to instructing Constantine. Introductory Notice to Lactantius footnote p.4,6
Because of his polished language, Lactantius has been called the Christian Cicero. Introductory Notice to Lactantius p.4
Lactantius was a pupil of Arnobius. Lactantius was an old man in 315 A.D. Introductory Notice to Lactantius p.5
Lactantius was more famous as a teacher of rhetoric than Arnobius He was invited by the Emperor Diocletian to come to Nicomedia and teach rhetoric. Introductory Notice to Lactantius p.5.
It is believe that Lactantius died around 325 A.D. p.6
Stoics and Epicrians believed the deeds of men provided no pleasure or anger in God. Introductory Notice to Lactantius p.6
The Divine Institutes were addressed to Constantine. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.1 p.10
The Father omnipotent calls all without regard to sex or age. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.1 p.10
There is One God who created all things. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.3 p.11-12
God is complete and the Eternal Mind. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.3 p.11
There is only one God. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.4 p.13
Mention of the Roman stoic Annaeus Seneca. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.5 p.15.
Men should acknowledge [God] their Father and Lord. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.7 p.17
While Hercules could overcome a lion, conquer an enemy, or clear a filthy stable, he could not control his anger, conquer his lust, or clean the filth of his own heart. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.9 p.18
God is a True Father. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.11 p.23
According to Roman mythology Uranus was the father of Saturn and Titan; Saturn deposed Uranus. Saturn married Ops. Jupiter and Juno were twins, and Jupiter was given to Vesta to bring up. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.14 p.26
[Some superstition] perchance, may be the fault of the Greeks, who always esteemed most trifling things as of greatest consequence." The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.18 p.31
Wine and corn were used by men before [Ceres and Liber] the offspring of Coelus and Saturnus. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.18 p.31
We should not worship with images. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.2 p.41
Sharp criticism of Cicero. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.3 p.43
God makes us rise to eternal life. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.9 p.57
Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) God gave us some animals for food. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.9 p.58
Man is in the image of God. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.9 p.58
A statue of Juno allegedly spoke, according to Roman mythology. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.17 p.66
Cattle and other animals have dissolution (annihilation) at death. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.13 p.62
Adam and Eve fell. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.13 p.62
Angels had free will, but no hope of pardon if they fell. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.15 p.64
Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) Noah built the ark when he was 600 years old. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.14 p.63
Some angels disobeyed and fell and became demons. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.15 p.64
"[God] lone with his Son the power over all things." The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.17 p.65
According to Roman mythology, the statue Juno of Veii spoke when asked if she wished to be moved to Rome. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.17 p.66
That which worships is lower and weaker than that which is worshipped. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.18 p.67
"...those who either make prayers to the dead, or venerate the earth, or make over their souls to unclean spirits, do not do act as becomes, and that they will suffer punishment for their impiety and guilt...." The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.18 p.67
There is no religion where there is an image. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.19 p.68
"For I know that the greatest orators have often been overcome by pleaders of moderate ability, because the power of truth is so great that is defends itself even in small things by its own clearness: why should I imagine that it will be overwhelmed in a cause of the greatest importance by men who are ingenious and eloquence, as I admit, but who speak false things; The Divine Institutes book 3 ch.1 p.69
Lactantius gave as an example of a self-contradictory statement that someone dreamed that he should not believe in dreams. The Divine Institutes book 3 ch.6 p.73
Lactantius was against Leucippus, Democritus, and atoms. The Divine Institutes book 3 ch.17 p.87
Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) Suicide is wrong. The Divine Institutes book 3 ch.18 p.89
Zeno was a madman who placed pity among vices and diseases. The Divine Institutes book 3 ch.23 p.93
Some Greeks and Romans taught that the earth was round, and that people lived on the opposite side of the earth too. Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) The Divine Institutes book 3 ch.24 p.94
The fountain of God is open to all. The Divine Institutes book 3 ch.26 p.96
Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) God is the chief good. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.1 p.101
We should both love and fear God. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.4 p.103
Moses lived about 700 years before the Trojan War. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.5 p.104
Judah was under Judges for 370 years. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.5 p.104
The Israelites had kings until Zedekiah for 450 years. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.5 p.105
Mention of Zechariah. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.5 p.105
Quotes Proverbs 8:22-31 as by Solomon. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.6 p.105
The ignorant, by changing a letter, called Christ "Chestus" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.7 p.106
As a stream flows from a fountain, so the Son comes from the Father. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.8 p.107
Solomon lived 140 years before the city of Troy was destroyed. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.8 p.107
Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) Jesus was a man, and He rose again. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.10 p.108
The Jews were in Egypt for 430 years. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.10 p.108
Lactantius said the death of Christ was March 23, in the 15th year of Tiberias. (The footnote says it is fairly certain it was actually April 7th [14 Nisan]) The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.10 p.109
Mentions Nehemiah 9:16 as by Ezra. (Nehemiah was sometimes called 2 Ezra.) The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109
Isaiah was cut in two with a saw. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.110
Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) The Holy Spirit descended from heaven and chose the holy virgin. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.110
Lactantius (260-325 A.D.) "God, the Father of the human race". The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.18 p.67. Mention of the His Son in The Divine Institutes ch.17 p.65
"for He was with us on the earth, when He assumed flesh; and He was not less God in man, and man in God. That He was both God and man was declared before by the prophets." The Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.44 p.239.
Lactantius, disciple of Arnobius: write 315-325/330 A.D. 7:272 "First of all, when evils befall them, men in their dejected state for the most part have recourse to God; they appease and entreat Him" A Treatise on the Anger of God chapter 16.
Lactantius (writing 300 A.D.) "But if He had not assumed a human body, He would not have been able to practice what He taught, - that is, not to be angry, not to desire riches, not to be inflamed with lust, not to fear pain, to despise death. These things are plainly virtues, but they cannot be done without flesh. Therefore He assumed a body on this account, tat, since He taught that the desires of the flesh must be overcome, He might in person first practice it, that no one might allege the frailty of the flesh as an excuse." Epitome to the Divine Institutes ch.50 p.242.
Greek fire?: When Alexander conquered Miletus and his soldiers were going to plunder the Temple of Ceres, a flame of fire suddenly came up and blinded them. Lactantius' Divine Institutes book 2 ch.8 p.52.
"We have said above that the nature of man is made up of opposing elements; for the body, because it is earth, is capable of being grasped, of temporary duration, senseless, and dark. Bu the soul, because it is from heaven, is unsubstantial, everlasting, endued with sensibility, and full of luster; and because these qualities are opposed to one another, it follows of necessity that man is subject to good and evil. Good is ascribed to the soul, because it is incapable of dissolution; evil to the body, because it is frail. Since, therefore, the body and the soul are connected and united together, the good and the evil must necessarily hold together..." Lactantius (315-325/330 A.D.) The Divine Institutes book 7 ch.5 p.202
Strange quote: Thus Solomon speaks: 'The womb of a virgin was strengthened, and conceived; and a virgin was made fruitful, and became a mother in great pity.'" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.110.
Venantius - (325 A.D.) - not started
(1 1/2 pages)
Venantius: vol.7 p.330 "Who seeing that the human race was plunged in the depth of misery, that Thou mightest rescue man, didst Thyself also become man." Poem on Easter.
Anatolius - 230-270-280 A.D.
Anatolius was from Alexandria. He became bishop of Laodicea in 270 A.D. He studied mathematics, geometry, and taught Aristotelian philosophy. He attended the Council of Antioch in 270 A.D. to discuss Paul of Samosata. Anatolius was very keen on the correct day to celebrate Easter. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.145
Anatolius mentions Hippolytus, Jerome, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen in The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.1 p.146
Mention of Philo, Josephus, Musaeus, 2 Agathobuluses, and Exodus in The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.3 p.147
Mention of the book of Enoch. Did not indicate whether he believed it was scripture or not. The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.5 p.147
Mention of Exodus by Moses. The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.8 p.148
Mention of Irenaeus in The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.10 p.149
Mention of Leviticus in The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.11 p.149
The wrong dates for Easter "are to be detestd and overturned. The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.15 p.150
Mention of the Catholic Church in The Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria ch.15 p.151
Anatolius mentions Aristotle and the Peripatetics, Pythagoras, and Homer, Fragments of the Books on Arithmetic p.152
Anatolius mentions Euripides, Asclepiades, Democritus [of Abdera, Thrace born c.460 B.C.], Asclepiades [a physician from Bithynia who practiced in Rome 1st century B.C.] Pythagoras, Eudemus in his Astrologies, Oenopides [of Chios], Thales [of Miletus], Anaximander [of Miletus 610 B.C.], Anaximenes [of Miletus] in Fragments of the Books on Arithmetic p.153.
Diodorus 270-280 A.D. - not started
Bishop Diodorus (270-280 A.D.) mentions God as the Father in Disputation with Manes ch.45 p.221
Asterius Urbanus c.232 A.D. - not started
Dionysius, Bishop of Rome - 259-269 A.D. - not started
Dionysius of Rome (259-269 A.D.) mentions the Father and the Son in his work Against the Sabellians ch.1 in Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.7 p.365 and other places.
"For the doctrine of the foolish Marcion, which cuts and divides the monarchy into three elements, is assuredly of the devil, and is not of Christ's true disciples... For these [true disciples] indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture, but that the doctrine that there are three gods is neither taught in the Old nor the New Testament." Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365
Pierius of Alexandria - 275 A.D.
Pierius was the teacher of Pamphilus. He was the head of the school at Alexandria and authored twelve books. One was On the Gospel of Luke, one was on the Passover, and another on Hosea. Eusebius said Pierius also believed in the nonsense from Origen on pre-existence of souls. fragment in Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.157.
Pierius (275 A.D.), presbyter of Alexandria taught about the Father and son, though using different semantics, in his fragment in Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.157.
Malchion - 270 A.D. - not started
Malchion (270 A.D.) mentions the Son of God in Letter in the Name of the Synod of Antioch Against Paul of Samosata ch.3 p.170.
Archelaus - 262-278 A.D. - not started
Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) 6:187 "none of these things can be attributed to the God and Father of our Lord and Saviour, but that we must take Satan to be the cause of all our ills." Disputation with Manes 13
Archelaus (262-278 A.D.) mentions God the Father and the Lord's prayer in Disputation with Manes ch.20 p.194
Peter, Bishop of Alexandria - 260-300-311 A.D. not started
Peter, Bishop of Alexandria (285-311 A.D.) Jesus prayed to His Father. Canonical Epistle 9 p.273
Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria - 273-313-326 A.D. not started
Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria - 282-300 A.D.
Theonas bishop of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) mentions God your Father in Epistle to Lucianus the Chief Chamberlain ch.1 p.158.
Theonas of Alexandria 300 A.D. ~6:159 "Therefore you ought to strive to the utmost of your power not to fall into a base or dishonourable, not to say an absolutely flagitious way of thinking..." Epistle to Lucianus the Chief Chamberlain ch.2 p.159.
Alexander, Bishop of Lycopolis - 301 A.D. - not started
Alexander of Lycopolis 301 A.D. 6:247 "But man, being able to perceive and to judge, and being potentially wise, -for he has the power to become so -when he has received what is peculiar to himself, treads it under foot." Of the Manichaeans chap. 15.
Phileas of Thmuis, in Egypt - martyred 307 A.D. - not started
Victorinus died 304 A.D. - not started
Victorinus bishop of Petau in Austria (martyred 304 A.D.) "Finally, as He Himself is the judge appointed by the Father, on account of His assumption of humanity..." Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345
Victorinus bishop of Petau in Austria (martyred 304 A.D.) Mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345
Pamphilus 309 A.D. - not started
Origen of Alexandria - 225-254 A.D. - unfinished
Origen was imprisoned in Tyre and tortured from 249 to 254 A.D..
Origen was probably born in Alexandria c.185 A.D. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.225
In 202 A.D.,Origen's father Leonidas was martyred. Origen wanted to go with him, but he could not because his mother hid his clothes. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.225
Origen once boarded with a heretic named Paul of Antioch. Origen would never worship with him. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.225
Heracles, bishop of Alexandria, studied grammar under Origen and became his friend. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.225
When Clement left Alexandria at the start of the persecution, Bishop Demetrius appointed Origen, 18 years old, as the head of the catechical school Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.225
Origen wanted to avoid both the temptation and appearance of sin with women, so he castrated himself. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.225-226
Origen attended the school of the founder of Neo-Platonism: Ammonias Saccas. He probably picked up many of his errors from there. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.226
In 216 A.D. Emperor Caracella came to Alexandria and persecuted the literary people there because some of them wrote sarcastic verses about him for killing his brother Greta. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.226
Ambrosius was a Valentinian heretic whom Origen converted to orthodox Christianity. They became good friends, and Ambrosius supported Origen financially. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.226-227
Bishop Demetrius excommunicated Origen after he was ordained a presbyter by those in Caesarea. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.228
Gregory Thaumaturgus of Cappadocia studied under Origen at Caesarea. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.4 p.229
In Caesarea Origen stayed in concealment in the house of a Christian lady named Julian, who was an heiress of the Ebionite Symmachus. Symmachus translated the Septuagint Old Testament. Origen saw many of the manuscripts Symmachus had. P.225
Ambrosius Was later imprisoned during the persecution of Maximian, but released after Maximian died. p.229
Origen converted the heretic bishop Berytus of Bostra in Arabia, back to Christianity. P.229
During the Decian persecution of 249 A.D., Origen was imprisoned at Tyre. He died in Tyre in 254 A.D., when he was 70 years old. P.226
The hexapla was too bulky at 50 volumes, so it was stored in the library at Caesarea. This was burned by the Arabs in 653 A.D. p.230
Origen wrote that he would not let a single objection of the critics he was writing against go unanswered. P.231
Origen's work, Origen's De Principiis had the most errors. They included: 1) Pre-existence of souls in heaven 2) Pre-existence of Christ's humanity 3) Martyrs bodies turned to spiritual bodies. 4) Eventually all people and even demons would be reconciled to Christ. 5) Julius Africanus doubted the story of Susanna, but Origen answered him. p.232-233
Origen though Hebrews was by Paul. Origen's De Principiis preface 1 p.239; 1.2.5 p.247; 1.5.1 p.256,
Mention of God as a Father; on earth Jesus was still God. Origen's De Principiis preface p.240; 1.23 p.246; 1.224 p.247
Jesus truly died and truly rose. Scripture does not mention if the Holy Spirit had a beginning or not. Origen's De Principiis preface 4 p.240
Every soul has free will. Origen's De Principiis preface 5 p.240
Origen said that whether Traducianism is true or not is not clear from scripture. Origen's De Principiis preface 5 p.240
Origen mentions the Doctrine of Peter. Origen's De Principiis preface 8 p.241
Origen mentions the Gospel account of John and quotes John 4:24. Origen's De Principiis 1.1.1 p.242
What belongs to the true nature of deity is common to the father and son. Origen's De Principiis 1.2.8 p.245
The Son had no beginning. Origen's De Principiis 1.2.2. p.246
Quote from the Acts of Paul. Origen's De Principiis 1.2.3 p.247
John (in 1 John) says God is light. Origen's De Principiis 220.127.116.11 p.248
Origen mentioned the Trinity by name in a number of places. Origen's De Principiis 18.104.22.168 p.252; 4.1.28 p.377; 4.1.32 p.379; 1.3.7 p.255; 1.4.2 p.256; 1.5.3 p.288; 1.6.1 p.260; 1.6.2 p.260; 2.2.2 p.270; 4.1.27 p.376; 4.1.28 p.377; 4.1.32 p.379
Mention of the Shepherd of Hermas, calling it the Pastor or Angel of Repentance by Hermas. Origen's De Principiis 1.3.3. p.252
Explanation of dual fulfillment of the prophecy of the King of Tyre in Ezekiel 28. Also Isaiah 14:12-22. Origen's De Principiis 1.5.4 p.258-259
Because stars move in an orderly fashion, Origen viewed that as proof that God was a rational being. Jeremiah 7:18 the moon was called the queen of heaven. Origen's De Principiis 1.7.3 p.263
Mention of Raphael, Gabriel, Michael. Origen's De Principiis 1.8.1 p.265
Some souls of men turned into angels. Origen's De Principiis 1.8.4 p.266
Mention of free will. Fragment 1 from Origen's De Principiis p.267
Origen speculated that the universe is like one huge animal, with God as its soul. Origen's De Principiis 2.1.3 p.269
Mention of the Maccabees Origen's De Principiis 2.1.5 p.270. Also in Origen's Commentary on John ch.18 vol.9 p.306-307
Quote from the Shepherd of Hermas. Origen's De Principiis 2.1.5 p.270
Moses led 200,000 out. Origen's De Principiis 2.3.4 p.272
Some think the world might be in parallel [universe], where everyone does everything, but Origen disagrees. Origen's De Principiis 2.3.4 p.272
The Paraclete is the Holy Spirit. Origen's De Principiis 2.7.1 p.284; 2.7.3 p.285; 2.7.4 p.285-286
Super-celestial beings. Origen's De Principiis 2.9.3 p.290
Explanation of outer darkness. Origen's De Principiis 2.10.8 p.296
An artist might use a pencil to lightly trace the outline of an image and mark where features are added for painting later. Similarly [natural revelation] has the same role in preparing for the gospel. Origen's De Principiis 2.11.4 p.298
Origen's definition of freewill: to be able to purpose to do some thing despite external causes inciting the opposite. Origen's De Principiis 3.1.5 p.304-305
Origen says in effect that as the same heart from the same sun both hardens mud and melts wax, so the working of God's spirit both hardens the rebellious and softens the repentant. Origen's De Principiis 3.1.11 p.311. Also elucidations p.384
In the problem of souls, God does not give people hearts of stone, but their hearts become stone through wickedness. Origen's De Principiis 3.1.14 p.314,316
View of scripture: Paul did not make contradictions. Origen's De Principiis 22.214.171.124 p.324
The apostle [Paul] teaches that whether we become a vessel of honor or not does not depend on God, but on us. Origen's De Principiis 3.1.22 p.328
Origen mentions that Jude makes use of the Ascension of Moses in his letter. Origen's De Principiis 3.2.1 p.328
The gates of Hell will not prevail against Peter. Origen's De Principiis 3.2.5 p.333
No event can occur without God. Origen's De Principiis 3.2.7 p.334
Origen said that the Greek philosophers thought the art of poetry could not exist without madness. Origen's De Principiis 3.3.3 p.335
Origen mentions John the Baptist, Jeremiah as filled with the spirit. Athanasius picked up on this later. Origen's De Principiis 3.4.3-5 p.337
Origen work has been preserve in both Latin and Greek. p.302-328 and p.349-373
Origen believed God made worlds before the present one, and He will make other worlds after this one. Origen's De Principiis 3.5.3 p.341
Origen believed in pre-existence. Origen's De Principiis 3.5.4 p.342
Origen believed in free will. Origen's De Principiis 3.5.5 p.343; 3.5.8 p.344
The highest good is to become as much like God as is possible. Origen's De Principiis 3.6.1 p.344
God is in all things. Origen's De Principiis 3.6.2 p.345
Jesus' disciples had power to tread on serpents and scorpions. Origen's De Principiis 4.1.5 p.352
Origen had a very high view of the authority and usefulness of scripture. Origen's De Principiis 4.1.7-8 p.353
Origen had a positive mention of the Shepherd of Hermas, though he said it was despised by some. Origen's De Principiis 4.1.11 p.359
There is a body, soul, and spirit of scripture. (both Greek and Latin) Origen's De Principiis 4.1.12 p.360
Origen had a low view of the historicity of scripture. He would agree it was infallible, but he would not agree that it was inerrant. Origen's De Principiis 4.1.15-16 p.364-366
If we listen to the words of Paul, they are the words of God. Origen's De Principiis 4.1.22 p.371
The gospel is everlasting (Revelation 14:6). Origen's De Principiis 4.1.25 p.375
Origen affirms there was never a time when the Son [Jesus] did not exist. Origen's De Principiis 4.1.28 p.377
Origen mentions "the canonical scriptures". Origen's De Principiis 4.1.33 p.379
Origen quotes from the book of Enoch ch.17 referring to it as "Enoch" Origen's De Principiis 4.1.35 p.380
Orient mentions the Wisdom of Solomon saying it is not accepted as authoritative by all. Origen's De Principiis elucidations p.384
Julius Africanus wrote a letter to Origen saying why Julius believed Susannah was not scripture: 1) the words are puns in Greek, not Hebrew, 2) the Hebrew exiles were slaves, without the power to execute people, and 3) it was not accepted by the Jews.
Origen replied to all objections in his letter to Julius Africanus: 1) Origen was not sure if Hebrew words could be found that were puns too or not, 2) the Hebrews had some power, as Tobit shows. Also Nehemiah was a cupbearer to the [Persian!] king, 3) there are frequent other differences between the Jewish Old Testament and their [Septuagint]. Therefore the Jews changed their scriptures. 4) Many other things given as truth in the New Testament as absent in the Jewish Old Testament, such as Isaiah being sawn asunder in Hebrews, all the prophets being persecuted in Acts 7. 5) Prophets did sometimes copy from other prophets, such as 2 Chronicles quoting Psalm 105. 6) Also, perhaps the Greek translators cleverly made those puns, and not in the Hebrew. 7) Daniel crying out in prophesy is different from other visions he was given, but Hebrews 1 says God spoke in diverse manners.
Origen said some claimed the book of Hebrews was not by Paul, but Origen thought otherwise. Origen's Letter to Julius Africanus ch.9 p.388
Origen mentions 1 Thessalonians as by Paul. Origen's Letter to Julius Africanus ch.9 p.389
Origen mentions the apocryphal book of Tobit. Origen's Letter to Julius Africanus ch.12 p.391
Origen mentions Herodotus and Heraclitus. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.9.5 p.398
Belief of the church: Resurrection: Semi-Pelagianism: For who is ignorant of the statement that Jesus was born of a virgin, and that He was crucified, and that His resurrection is an article of faith among many, and that a general judgment is announced to come, in which the wicked are to be punished according to their deserts, and the righteous to be duly rewarded? Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.7 p.399
Platonists believe in the immortality of the soul, and metempsychosis (reincarnation). Stoics denied these things. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.3 p.402
Origen mentions Josephus and Tacitus. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.16 p.403
Age of the earth: Origen says Moses taught that the world is not yet 10,000 years old. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.19 p.404
Mentions of the Brahmans of India, along with Epicurus and Aristotle. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.24 p.406
Mention of archangels Raphael, Gabriel, and Michael. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.25 p.406
Witness of blood argument. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.37 p.409
Celsus taught that Jesus' father was a Roman soldier named Panthera. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.32 p.410; book 1 ch.69 p.428
Mention of Isaiah 7:14 as Messianic. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.36 p.411
Mention of Josephus Flavius. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.47 p.416
Josephus' quote about Jesus. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.47 p.416; also book 2 ch.13 p.437
Origen answers the Jewish arguments against Messianic meaning in Isaiah 53. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.55 p.420
Origen quotes Psalm 45:6,7 "Thy throne O God..." and says Jesus is called God here. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.46 p.421
Dositheus the Samaritan claimed to be the Messiah returned. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.47 p.421
Origen considered the star the Magi saw as a new star, not an existing heavenly body. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.48 p.422
In Numbers 24:17 in the Septuagint, Balaam prophesying a star coming out of Jacob refers to Christ. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.59 p.422
Mention of Herod's slaughter of the children of Bethlehem. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.61 p.423
Mention of the philosopher Chrysippus. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.64 p.425
Mention of the apocryphal book of Susanna. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.65 p.426
Description of the Ebionites. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.1 p.429
Origen answered the argument that if Jesus were really a good teacher, Judas would not have gone astray. He tells Celsus that Aristotle spoke disparagingly of Plato, and Chrysippus spoke disparagingly of Cleanthes. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.12 p.436
Mention of the darkness and in the 13th or 14th book of the writer Phlegon. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.14 p.437, book 2 ch.33 p.445; book 2 ch.59 p.455
Very brief mention of Marcion, Valentinus, and Lucian. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.27 p.443
Jesus was crucified under the Emperor Tiberias. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.33 p.445
When Jesus was without a body, between His crucifixion and resurrection, He converted souls. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.43 p.448.
After Jesus was crucified he showed His nail-pierced hands. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.55 p.423
Jesus' death and resurrection are fundamentally different from Greek tales of alleged rising of the dead with Orpheus, Protesilaus, the Taenarian Hercules, and Theseus, because they secretly went and came back, but Jesus died publicly. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.56 p.454.
Mention of the darkness and earthquake after Jesus' death. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.59 p.455. book 2 ch.70 p.460 also mentions the earthquake.
Mention of Thomas seeing Jesus. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.61 p.456
Matthias was substituted for Judas. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.65 p.457
Reference other gods in 1 Corinthians are demons. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.2 p.466
Brief mention of the Ophite and Cainite heretics. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.13 p.471
Examples of the Oracle of Delphi giving foolish commands. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.25 p.473
Brief mention of the churches in Athens, Corinth, and Alexandria. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.30 p.476
The gods of the pagans are greedy demons who flit around sacrifices and blood in order to deceive. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.37 p.479
Quote from Callimachus calling Cretans liars for building a tomb for Jupiter when Jupiter had not died. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.43 p.481
Scripture importance: "...ancient Jewish writings, which we also use, but especially from those which were composed after the time of Jesus, and which are believed among the Churches to be divine." Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.45 p.482
According to Origen's understanding, a bishop should be a man who has married once, but he should not be a man who has twice entered into the married state. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.48 p.483
Origen in Against Celsusbook 3 ch.49 p.484 applied 1 Timothy 4:10 and 1 John 2:1-2 to include not just slaves, women, and children, but all men, whether intelligent or simple.
Christians lamented as dead Christians who fell away into sin. They regarded them as risen from the dead if they repented, and received them after a time interval. They are not allowed to hold any church office though. Origen in Against Celsus book 3 ch.51 p.485
Mention of Josephus Flavius and his Antiquities of the Jews. Origen in Against Celsus book 4 ch.11 p.501
Moses was older than either Homer or most of the Greeks. Origen in Against Celsus book 4 ch.21 p.505
Origen thought the destruction of Jerusalem was 42 years after the crucifixion. Origen in Against Celsus book 4 ch.22 p.502
Stories such as Lot and his daughters are in sacred scripture to the Bible show the love of truth of the Bible writers, who would not conceal even what was to their discredit. Origen in Against Celsus book 4 ch.45 p.518
Origen mentions Chrysippus of Soli as an "ornament of the Stoic sect" in Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.48 p.519.
Wrong science: Origen thought that fennel sharpened vision in Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.86 p.535
Origen believe in free will for each individual in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.21 p.552
Creator: Origen mentions God as the Creator of all things in Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.27p.555
Origen (225-254 A.D.) was one source that said when Alexander of Macedon came to Jerusalem, the Jewish high priest, clothed in his sacred robe met him. Alexander bowed before him, saying that he had seen someone with the same robe in his dram, announcing that he was to be the subjugator of all of Asia. Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.50 p.565
Origen's Commentary on John
Origen says that people will have everlasting life or everlasting shame. Commentary on John (c.225-231 A.D.) ch.12 p.304
The first five books of Origen's Commentary on John were written prior to his departure to Caesarea in 231 A.D.) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.9 p.294
Origen thought the 144,000 were Gentile converts and not Jewish Christians. Origen's Commentary on John (225-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.1 p.297.
Origen spoke of the New Testament and said there were only four gospels. Origen's Commentary on John (225-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.1 p.299
Christ lives in believers. Origen's Commentary on John (225-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.6 p.300
Jesus was crucified. Origen's Commentary on John (225-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.7 p.301
The Father is the maker of all. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.8 p.301
Mention of the New Testament and the Old Testament. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.8 p.301
Christ rose from the dead. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.11 p.303
People have everlasting life or else everlasting shame. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.12 p.304
Mention of the angels over the shepherds at Bethlehem. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.13 p.304
"And here I wonder how the dissentients can connect the two Testaments with two different Gods. These words, were there no others, are enough to convict them of their error. For how can John be the beginning of the Gospel if they suppose he belongs to a different God, if he belongs to the demiurge, and, as they hold, is not acquainted with the new deity? Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.14 p.305
Origen interprets Job 40:19 as "This is the beginning of God's creation, made for His angels to mock at." Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.17 p.306
Origen calls the general turn of Christians stupid for no inquiring the meaning behind the word logos. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.23 p.308
Origen mentions the Epistle of John and says Christ is our High Priest. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.23 p.309
Origen mentions Malachi by name and quotes Malachi 1:6. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.31 p.314
Origen says that in 1 Corinthians 8:15 gods and lords refers to thrones and dominions. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.34 p.315
Origen mentions Jesus' virgin birth and being the only-begotten. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.34 p.315
Origen teaches that we are sunk in sin. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.35 p.316
Origen mentions the New Testament. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.36 p.316
Jesus takes away the sin of the world. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.38 p.317
Christ tasted death for everyone without God. He died for all intellectual beings. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.40 p.318
Christ is our High Priest. Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.40 p.318
Nothing is uncreated but the Father. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.6 p.328
Origen knew of the Gospel of Hebrews and was against it. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.6 p.329
Origen interpreted John 1:1; through Him all things were made. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.8 p.330
Strange and defective form of the ontological argument. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.12 p.334
Heracleon, it was said, was a friend of Valentinus. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.8 p.331
Heracleon falsely though "in him was life" meant that only the Gnostic spiritual men had life. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.15 p.335
Origen mentions Elijah and Judith. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.16 p.336
Origen mentions the angel talking to Zechariah, father of John the Baptist. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.17 p.336
Origen mentions the twelve (prophets of the Old Testament) and then quotes Hosea 10:12. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.20 p.337
John the Baptist's soul was older than his body. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.24-25 p.340
Origen knew of the Jewish apocryphal work, The Prayer of Joseph but did not believe it true. Origen's Commentary on John book 2 ch.25 p.341
Origen believed the church was built on Peter and the gates of Hell would not prevail against him. Origen's Commentary on John book 3 ch.3 p.346
Origen mentions the Pentateuch. Origen's Commentary on John (225-231 A.D.) book 5 ch.4 p.347
The Sadducees did not believe in the resurrection. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.2 p.351
The prophecy in Deuteronomy 38:15 referred to Christ. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.4 p.353
John the Baptist had the spirit and power of Elijah, but he was not Elijah reincarnated. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.7 p.353
The Spirit of Elijah in John the Baptist was he Holy Spirit. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.7 p.356
Phineas son of Eleazer allegedly prolonged his life through many judges. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.7 p.356
The Jews did not ask John the Baptist if he was a prophet, but rather THE prophet. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.8 p.358
Origen quoted Mark 1:1 and it says "written in Isaiah the prophet" Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.14 p.304; book 6 ch.14 p.363
Matthew originally wrote his Gospel before the others, to the Hebrews. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.17 p.367
Origen mentions the Trinity. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.17 p.367
Origen quotes 1 Peter 3:18-20 as by Peter. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.18 vol.9 p.368
John the Baptist was not in Bethany but Barbara, because Bethany, where Mary, Martha, and Lazarus lived, is not by the Jordan River. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.24 p.370. However, Origen does not consider there might be another town with the same name by the Jordan.
Origen says it is Gergasa, net Gerasa, because Gerasa is in Arabia and there is no lake there. Likewise Gadara is a town with hot springs but no lake. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.24 p.371
The Holy Spirit descended on Jesus as His baptism. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.31 p.376
Jesus is the Lamb of God. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.32 p.376
Christ purchased us back by His own blood. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.35 p.377
Jephthah really sacrificed his daughter. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.36 p.379
Jesus is the Lamb of God and propitiation for our sins. Jesus ascended to heaven. Origen's Commentary on John book 6 ch.37 p.378
Origen saw a discrepancy in that John did not discuss Jesus' forty-day temptation. Origen solved it by saying the meaning is mystical. Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.2 p.382
Christ drove out demons. Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.9 p.386
"But our Passover is sacrificed for us, namely, Christ" Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.13 p.389
Jesus came to Jerusalem on a donkey and its colt. Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.17 p.395-396
Origen interpreted the donkey and its colt to represent the Old Testament and New Testament. Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.28 p.396,397
"The body is the Church, and we learn from Peter [1 Peter 2:5] that it is a house of God, built of living stones, a spiritual house for a holy priesthood." Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.23 p.404
The Exodus was 430 years after God made the covenant with Abraham. [This is incorrect.] Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.23 p.404
From Abraham to the beginning of building the Temple was 770 years. [This is incorrect.] Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.23 p.404
Origen said the temple was build without any tools so that there would be no noise in the house of God when it was built. Now Origen asks "those in bondage to the letter" how there could be no noise? [The Bible does not say no noise.] Origen's Commentary on John book 10 ch.25 p.405
Origen's Commentary on Matthew
Origen mentioned his commentary on Luke, but we do not have that preserved. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.9 p.411
Origen mentions the gospels in his Commentary on Matthew book 2 ch.1 p.413
Origen has strange scientific views on pearls in his Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.7 p.416-417
"But some say, basing it on a tradition in the Gospel according to Peter, as it is entitled, or "The Book of James." That the brethren of Jesus were sons of Joseph by a former wife, whom he married before Mary." Origen is not saying this is scripture or a gospel, only that it is entitled that. [See where Origen said there were only four gospels in Origen's Commentary on John book 1 ch.1 p.299] Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.17 p.424
Origen quotes 1 Thessalonians 2:14,15 as by Paul in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.18 p.425
Origen mentions that Isaiah was sawn asunder by the people. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.18 p.425
Origen mentions making disciples of all nations in Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.18 p.426
Origen mentions John the Baptist as coming in the spirit and power (but not the reincarnation of) Elijah. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.20 p.427
The Sadducees did not believe in resurrection or angels while the Pharisees did. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.1 p.449
Origen (225-254 A.D.) called the transmigration of souls into bodies a false dogma. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.20 p.427
Origen (225-254 A.D.) mentions Herod and Christ's trial. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.20-21 p.427-428
Scripture does not record a birthdays kept by a righteous man. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.22 p.429
Herodias had unholy dancing which is different from the holy dancing of believers. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.22 p.428
Jesus ate a broiled fish after He rose from the dead. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.2 p.432
Origen mentions lovers of money. He reminds us that is what Jesus said the Pharisees were. He interprets Judas' love of money as the sin that started him to betray Jesus, and says that is why it is the root of all evil. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.24 p.430, book 11 ch.9 p.438-439
Judas spoke on behalf of the poor but took from what was put in the bag. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.9 p.438-439
Origen mentions the Jews and Ebionites. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.12 p.440
Do not eat meat sacrificed to idols. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.12 p.441
Eating meat is OK. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.12 p.441
The God of the Old Testament and the God of the Gospels are the same. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.14 p.442
The God of the world is not God any more than the belly is God. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.14 p.442
Origen mentions that the Canaanite woman in Tyre and Sidon worshipped Jesus as Son of God. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.17 p.446
Origen mentions the resurrecton of Jesus. Origen's Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.4 p.442
Eusebius - not started
Acacius, successor of Eusebius, wrote a Life of Eusebius which has been lost p.3
Smith and Wace 137 people named Eusebius p.4
Lived about c.260-330/340 A.D. p.4
Eusbeius was like Plato, the best of all philosophers p.5
Egypt rebelled form Rome in 296 A.D. p.6
Eusebius did not wrote about heretics much
Athanasius says Eusebius was accused of sacrificing, but does not claim he did it. Athanasius claims Asterius sacrificed though. P.10
Romans did not practice mutilation of prisoners much until after 308 A.D. p.10
Licinius persecuted from the time of war with Constantine in 314 A.D. to his defeat by Constantine in 323 A.D. p.11
Eusebius started his bishopric around 313 A.D.
315 Persecution of Licinius
Constantine and Licinius fight from 314-323 A.D. p.11
Arian controversy begins in 318 A.D. p.11
Eusebius of Caesarea was a zealous supporter of Arianism in its early stages. p.12
Eusebius was never a great theologian p.16
Eusebius gave the opening address in honor of Constantine at the Council of Nicea p.20
Eustatius the Nicean opposed Eusebius at the Council of Antioch in 330. The Council examined both and deposed and exiled Eustatius. Eusebius asked to be bishop of Antioch, but he showed more interest in scruples to prevent division. P.22
Arians and Meletians made up scandalous stories about Athanasius p.22
Athanasius - lived c.297-373 A.D. - not started
Athanasius (~297-373 A.D.) "For being Word of the Father, and above all, He alone of natural fitness was both able to recreate everything, and worthy to suffer on behalf of all and to be ambassador for all with the Father" Incarnation of the Word chapter 7 (Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.4 p.40, See also Against the Heathen 4 p.6)
Athanasius: "Now certain Greeks ... make a double mistake: either in denying the Creator to be maker of all things, if evil had an independent subsistence and being of its own; or again, if they mean that He is maker of all things, they will of necessity admit Him to be maker of evil also. For evil, according to them, is included among existing things. ... they also wrongly think that evil has a substantive existence." (Against the Heathen 6 p.6-7)
Athanasius Incarnation 25:3, "For it is only on the cross that a man dies with his hands spread out. Whence it was fitting for the Lord to bear this also and to spread out His hands that with the one He might draw the ancient people, and with the other those from the Gentiles and unite both in Himself."
Hilary of Poitiers - 300-367 A.D. not started
Hilary of Poitiers (300-367 A.D.) "Had this [will] been given, faith would carry with it no reward, for a necessity of will attached to us would also impose faith upon us." (On the Trinity viii 12 p.140-141.) See also On the Trinity vii 19 for the definition of free will and the free will of God.)
On John 5:23 Hilary said, "Since unless things are of the same nature they are never accorded equal honor, and equality of honor does not bring about a separation in those who are being honored. But the mystery of the birth demands equality of honor."
Hilary (among others) understood how all these verses naturally fit together over sixteen hundred years ago in Trinity 7:32. Since one cannot bring two gods into Christianity, Jesus is God, but Jesus is not a separate God. Jesus stressed that He only acted in concert with the Father (John 5:19-23, 10:30, 14:10-11, and 16:15.) If you can get their eyes open to comprehend this, then they are on the road to understanding the Trinity.
Cyril of Jerusalem - c.315-335-386 A.D. - not started
Cyril of Jerusalem (~315-335-386 A.D.) "Cleanse thy vessel, that thou mayest receive grace more abundantly. For though remission of sins is given equally to all, the communion of the Holy Ghost is bestowed in proportion to each man's faith" (First Catechetical Lecture I Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers p.7)
Basil - 329/330-379 A.D. - not started
Basil in Prolegomena "On the other hand, of the evils of hell the cause is not God, but ourselves. The origin and root of sin is what is in our own control and our free will." (Prolegomena in the Nicene & Post- Nicene Church Fathers Second Series vol. 8 p.lviii)
Gregory Nanzianzus c.330-391 A.D. - not started
Gregory Nanzianzus (~330-391 A.D.) "Having honoured him [Adam] with the gift of Free Will (in order that God might belong to him as the result of his choice, no less than to Him who had implanted the seeds of it), ... (On the Theophany, or Birthday of Christ. Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.7 p.348
Gregory Nanzianzus "...those detractors of all that is praiseworthy, those darkeners of light, uncultured in respect of wisdom, for whom Christ died in vain" (ibid p.349).
Gregory of Nyssa - 331/335/336-395 A.D. - not started
Gregory of Nyssa (331/335/336-395 A.D.) "Being the image and the likeness, as has been said, of the Power which rules all things, man [Adam] kept also in the matter of a Free-Will this likeness to Him who Will is over all.... and so he was a free agent, though circumvented with cunning, when he drew upon himself that disaster which now overwhelms humanity. ... for God did not make death. Man became, in fact himself the fabricator, to a certain extent, and the craftsman of evil. All who have the faculty of sight may enjoy equally the sunlight; and any one can if he likes put this enjoyment from him by shutting his eyes: in that case it is not that the sun retires and produces that darkness, but the man himself puts a barrier between his eye and the sunshine; ... Again, a man in building a house for himself may omit to make in it any way of entrance for the light; the will necessarily be in darkness, though he cuts himself off from the light voluntarily." (Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series vol.5 On Virginity chapter 11 p.357) (See also On the Soul and the Resurrection p.457)
John Chrysostom - not started
John Chrysostom (345-martyred 407) on Romans 9:11-13 "What was the cause then why one [Jacob] was loved and the other [Esau] hated? Why was it that one served, the other was served? It was because one was wicked, and the other good. ... For when they were not as yet born, God said, 'the elder shall serve the younger.' With what intent then did God say this? Because He doth not wait, as man doth, to see from the issue of the acts the good and him who is not so, but even before these He knoweth which is the wicked and which not as such." Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers First Series vol.11 p.464-465.)
John Chrysostom on Rom 9:20-21 "'Shall the thing formed say to Him that formed it, Why hast Thou made me thus? Hath not the potter (Read Jer. 19:1-10) power, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honor, and another unto dishonor?' Here it is not to do away with free-will that he says this, but to show, up to what point we ought to obey God. For in respect of calling God to account, we ought to be as little disposed to it as the clay is." (ibid p.467)
John Chrysostom "do not suppose that this is said by Paul as an account of the creation, nor as implying a necessity over the will, but to illustrate the sovereignty and difference of dispensations; for it we do not take it in this way, divers incongruities will follow, for if here he were speaking about the will, and those who are good and those not so, He will be Himself the Maker of these, and man will be free from all responsibility. And at this rate, Paul will also be shown to be at variance with himself, as he always bestows chief honor upon free choice. " (ibid p.468)
John Chrysostom on Eph 1:11 "'...he [Paul] speaks also of inheritance by lot, yet so as not to divest them of free will.... It is as though he had said, lots were cast, and He hath chosen us' but the whole is of deliberate choice. Men predestinated, that is to say, having chosen them to Himself, he hath separated. ... For marvellous is the foreknowledge of God, and acquainted with all things before their beginning.... According to the purpose,' he says, 'of Him who worketh all things after the counsel of His will.' That is to say, He had no after working; having modeled all things from the very first, thus he leads forward all things 'according to the counsel of His will. So that it was not merely because the Jews did not listen that He called the Gentiles, nor was it of mere necessity, nor was it on any inducement arising from them."
John Chrysostom on 2 Tim 2:4 "Imitate God! If He willeth that all men should be saved, there is reason why one should pray for all, if He hath willed that all should be saved, be thou willing also" Homilies on Timothy in Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers 1st Series vol.13 p.430)
In Homily 3 on John 1:1, John Chrysostom said, "He (the apostle John) did not say: 'He was in God,', but: 'He was with God' making clear to us His eternity as a person. And then he went on to reveal this more clearly by adding this Word also 'was God.' 'But still created', someone objects. Well, then, what prevented John from saying it that way; 'In the beginning God created the Word?' In speaking of the earth, at least Moses did not say: 'In the beginning was the earth; but: 'He created it,' and then, 'it was.' What, then, prevented John also from saying: 'In the beginning God created the Word?' If Moses, in speaking of the earth, feared lest anyone might say it was uncreated, much more should John have been afraid [to say what he did] about the Son if He were indeed created."
Here are references from nine followers of Jesus on the Fatherhood of God just after the New Testament prior to 200 A.D.
Letter of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 (Son of God) ch.14
Ignatius to the Ephesians (before 116 A.D.) chapter 2, ch.3
Fragments of Papias (before 155 A.D.) Fragment 5 (2 times)
First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.13 (son), chapter 15 (2 times) (150-165 A.D.)
Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 1 ch.4, book 2 chapter 22 (2 times)
Athenagoras' Plea for Christians (177 A.D.) chapter 10 (2 times)
Ephraim the Syrian - c.306-378 A.D. - not started
Aphrahat - not started
Sulpitius Severus - 363-420 A.D. - not started
Ambrose of Milan - wrote 368-397 A.D. - not started
Theodoret - c.393-423-458 A.D. - not started
Theodoret (~393-423-458 A.D. accused of being a Nestorian but vindicated at Chalcedon) Dialogues III in the Nicene & Post Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.3 p.224 When the head of the race [Adam] was doomed, all the race was doomed with him, and so when the Saviour destroyed the curse, human nature won freedom"
Constitutions of the Twelve Apostles - 4th century - not started
"For God made man free, and with power over himself. ...That, then, which man brought upon himself through carelessness and disobedience, this God now vouchsafes to him as a gift through His own philanthropy and pity, when men obey Him. ... so, obeying the will of God, he who desires is able to procure for himself life everlasting." 2:105 To Autolycus 27
Constitutions of the 12 Apostles 4th century book 7 p.489 "...reconciled Thee to the world, and freed all men from the wrath to come" "... and deliver mankind from his deceit." book 7.
"For our Savior Himself entreated His Father for those who had sinned, as it is written in the Gospel:" and then quotes Luke 23:34 book 2 ch.16 p.402
Jerome - 342-420 A.D. - not started
Jerome (345-420 A.D.) (He wrote in a question an answer style between the orthodox Atticus and the Pelagian heretic Critobulus)
"Critobulus: "but what grieves me is this: that dignitaries of the Church, and those who usurp the title of master, destroy free will; and once that is destroyed, the way is open for the Manichaeans."
Atticus: Am I the destroyer of free will because, throughout the discussion, my single aim has been to maintain the omnipotence of God as well as free will?
Critobulus: How can you have free will, and yet say that man can do nothing without God's assistance?
Atticus: If he is to be blamed who couples free will and God's help, it follows that we ought to praise who does away with God's help [sarcasm here]" Against the Pelagians book III p.474
Nestorius' Bazaar of Heracleides 451/452 A.D.
Jesus was prior to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.12 p.11; book 1 ch.1.25 p.19
Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) spoke of the incarnation and Trinity. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.34 p.25
Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) God is all-powerful ... able to effect everything. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.16 p.14; book 1 ch.1.21 p.17
Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) Christ was man while remaining God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.29 p.23
Christ is adored. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.29 p.23
Christ is a mediator. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.24 p.19; book 1 ch.1.55 p.51; book 1 ch.1.59 p.56
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.34 p.25-26
"Divine Spirit wishes us to understand [it]" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.38 p.29
Jesus is "God the Word" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.39 p37
"God the Word, who truly became man in nature" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.23 p.18
Christ died for us. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.40 p.32
The Holy Spirit is God The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.45-46 p.36-37; book 1 ch.1.47 p.38
The Father is God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.47 p.38
Against the Sabellians. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.52 p.43-44
Everything came into being by the Father through the Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.53 p.4
Only begotten Son. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.53 p.46-47
Jesus is the "lamb of God" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.55 p.51
God gave the Law. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.56 p.53
God dwells in people. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.59 p.56
We are Sons of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.59 p.56-57
Jesus died and was crucified. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.61 p.58
We are made in the image of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.63 p.59
God is the "Most High" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.63 p.60
Jesus was truly sinless. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.68 p.63
Mention of Satan. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.70 p.63-64
Jesus accepted the baptism of John. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64
Father, Son, and Spirit are distinct. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.64-65
Jesus endured temptation. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.74 p.68
Jesus said that "I and the Father are One (John 10:30). The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.74 p.68
Mentions the Fall of Adam and eating of the forbidden tree. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.75 p.68-69
Jesus died on our behalf. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.80 p.73
Christ's resurrection. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.83 p.75
Satan wanted to be considered God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.84 p.76
God is good and just and wise and mighty. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.86 p.78-79
Jesus was sinless. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.91 p.81-82
Man is sinful. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.92 p.82
God's Word is the conqueror for all time. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.93 p.84
318 bishops at Nicea. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.87
"gave the grace of the Gospel unto all men" The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.86
Christ was born of the Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 1 ch.1.71 p.55
Christ fulfilled the law. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2.7 p.91
Cyril wrote to other bishops. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.131-132
Jesus Christ is a just judge. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.135
God is the maker of all things. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.141; 1 p.144
Mary is the Holy Virgin, but not the mother of God. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.149; Virgin Mary. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.171
The Son in the Father and the Father in the Son like the fire in the bush. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 3 ch.1 p.160
Christ suffered and died and rose and is ready to come to judge the quick and the dead. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.177
"God the Word is unchangeable and immortal and He is continuously that where He is in the eternity of the Father. ... there was not when he was not." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 p.82
Christ "existed of old and exists eternally." The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.192
Born of the Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.198
Speaks well of Gregory the Divine and Athanasius. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.200
Mention of Moses. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1 (b) p.204
King of kings and Lord of Lords. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.221
Mention of Ambrose. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.217
Theophilus of Alexandria. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.231
Christ was the second Adam. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.12(b) p.235
Christ was free from sin. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.251
Jesus of the seed of the House of David. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.261
John was bribed by Cyril. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.279
Jesus was born of God the Father. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.295
God is Father and God is Son and God is Holy Spirit. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.1(b) p.309
Cyril bribed with 2,000 pounds of gold. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2 p.349
Nestorius (451/452 A.D.) was against Judaism. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2 p.376
Nestorius looked forward to being resurrected. The Bazaar of Heracleides book 2 ch.2 p.380
Patrick of Ireland - c.389-461 A.D. - not started
Patrick of Ireland (~389-461 A.D. on losing salvation) "They are heading towards Hell; they cannot any longer be called Christians nor Romans [i.e. civilized] but outcasts. They must show signs of genuine and bitter repentance and try to make amends for their terrible crime." Patrick's Letter to Corticus, a slave-trader.
John of Damascus - not started
John of Damascus "For chance is defined as the meeting and concurrence of two causes, originating in choice but bringing to pass something other than what is natural; for example, if a man finds a treasure while digging a ditch..." p.39
John of Damascus "for it would not be right to ascribe to God actions that are sometimes base and unjust; nor may we ascribe these to necessity, ...We are left then with this fact, that the man who acts and makes is himself the author of his own works, and is a creature endowed with free-will. Exposition of the Orthodox Faith chapter 25 Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers 2nd Series vol.9 2nd p.40) We hold, therefore, that free-will comes on the scene at the same moment as reason," (ibid ch27 p.40)
Bishop of Athens wrote this in the 1st century: "'Sudden' is that which, contrary to expectation, and out of the, as yet, unmanifest, is brought into the manifest. But with regard to Christ's love of man, I think that the Word of God suggests even this, that the Superessential proceeded forth out of the hidden, into the manifestation amongst us, by having taken substance as man." (The St. Pachomius Orthodox Library; Letter III: To Gaius Therapeutes Translated by Rev. John Parker, 1897.)
Let us therefore approach Him in holiness of soul, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, with love towards our gentle and compassionate Father because He made us an elect portion unto Himself ... Seeing then that we are the special elect portion of a holy God, let us do all things that pertain unto holiness....There was given a declaration of blessedness upon them that have been elected by God through Jesus Christ our Lord....Jesus Christ is the hope of the elect. What Is So Amazing About Grace p.284 claims this is in 1 Clement, but it is not.
Creator: Perseverance of the saints: guard intact unto the end of the number that hath been numbered of Thine elect throughout the whole world, through Your beloved Son Jesus Christ....For You chose the Lord Jesus Christ, and You chose us through Him for a peculiar people." What Is So Amazing About Grace p.284 claims this is in 1 Clement, but it is not.
Perseverance of the saints: It is the will of God that all whom He loves should partake of repentance, and so not perish with the unbelieving and impenitent. He has established it by His almighty will. But if any of those whom God wills should partake of the grace of repentance, should afterwards perish, where is His almighty will? And how is this matter settled and established by such a will of His? Putting Amazing Back Into Grace p.300 claims this is in 1 Clement, but it is not.
Soter, bishop of Rome (c.166-175 A.D.) wrote a letter to Corinth and sent it aid. Dionysius wrote a reply to this. Unfortunately Soter's letter has been lost. (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1972 vol.20 p.922)
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